Gidi Grinstein and Ari Afilalo’s Articles

Gidi Grinstein and Ari Afilalo’s Articles. He is a tenured Professor of Law at Rutgers Law School, where he has been teaching international law since 2000. Professor Afilalo has researched and written extensively on Statecraft, globalisation, populism, international political economy, and international institutions

Gidi Grinstein and Ari Afilalo’s Articles

 

Gidi Grinstein is the Founder of the Reut Group and the author of Flexigidity: the Secret of Jewish Adaptability and the Crisis and Opportunity Facing Israel, which offered a vision of Israel as the nation state of the Jewish People. His article ‘Time to End Diaspora Complacency’ built upon that book and on the extensive study undertaken by the Reut Institute into the condition and direction of Israel-Diaspora relations.

 

 Gidi Grinstein and Ari Afilalo's Articles
Gidi Grinstein and Ari Afilalo’s Articles

 

Ari Afilalo is a tenured Professor of Law at Rutgers Law School, where he has been teaching international law since 2000. Professor Afilalo has researched and written extensively on Statecraft, globalisation, populism, international political economy, and international institutions. He is a native of France, and the President of the West Side Sephardic Synagogue in Manhattan. He regularly publishes a blog in the Times of Israel.
Gidi Grinstein and Ari Afilalo argue that on the eve of Israel’s 70th anniversary, it must reembrace its vision of being the nation state of the entire Jewish People to preserve its exceptionalism.

 

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu seen with head of the Jewish Agency Natan Sharansky, at the PM’s office in Jerusalem 18 June 2013. Photo by Kobi Gideon. Flash90.

 

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu seen with head of the Jewish Agency Natan Sharansky
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Jewish Agency Natan Sharansky

 

Israel70 | How to fix the crisis in Israel-World Jewry relations

 

In June 2017 the government of Israel cancelled the hard-fought ‘Kotel Compromise’. That agreement would have provided for an additional egalitarian prayer space at Jerusalem’s Western Wall, accessible to all non-Orthodox denominations without the traditional separation (mechitzah) between men and women. The Reform and Conservative movements, who represent the vast majority of American Jewry, had attributed great symbolic and political significance to this compromise, viewing it as an official recognition by the State of Israel of their legitimacy as branches of Judaism. In addition, the government announced its support for amendments to the Conversion Law, which would deny official recognition to conversions performed by rabbis who are not recognised by Israel’s Chief Rabbinate.

 

Adding fuel to the fire, roughly at the same time, it was also revealed that the Chief Rabbinate had ‘blacklisted’ some Diaspora rabbis as untrustworthy. That list included not only rabbis who belong to the Reform and Conservative movements that have been long rejected, but also prominent Orthodox ones in the US and Canada.

 

These events sent shock waves throughout the Jewish world. While they are not the first crisis in the relations between Israel and World Jewry, they do represent a potentially dramatic watershed. While Israel-World Jewry relations have been eroding for decades among those less involved in the so-called ‘organised Jewish community’ or in active support for Israel, the current crisis struck at the heart of the Zionist, pro-Israel Jewish community. Indeed, many World Jewry leaders expressed frustration and outrage at Israel, both publicly and in private, and few went as far as suggesting ‘targeted boycotts’ of the government of Israel, or divestments from Israel altogether.

 

How worrying is this crisis? The answer to this question varies. Some believe that the relationship is resilient and that the crisis can be transcended. They point to uninterrupted financial support and to the continued success of major organisations that are dedicated to Israel, such as AIPAC. But the reality is that the fire is smoldering, as this crisis has been long in the making and is driven by deep and more powerful demographic and political trends. In the long-term, it is a detriment to both the state and World Jewry.

 

Reversing these negative trends requires a reimagining of World Jewry to address current and emerging realities. This process needs to take place primarily on the part of Israel to reflect an evident reality: unprecedented successes and powers usher in new responsibilities if Israel is to remain the nation-state of the entire Jewish People in the 21st century.

 

ISRAELI EXCEPTIONALISM

 

Israel represents a bold political concept. Its founding ideology, Zionism, was formed in the late 1800s in order to serve the significant and continued existence of the entire Jewish People. Hence, if France is the nation-state of all French citizens, Israel is the nation-state not just of all Israeli citizens, Jews and non-Jews alike, including a 20 per cent Arab minority, but also of all Jews living outside of Israel. This is notwithstanding the fact that many of the non-Israeli Jews have not pledged any formal or ideological allegiance to it and a minority among them even opposes the idea of Israel altogether. These ideals were enshrined in 1948 in Israel’s Declaration of Independence and continue to inspire much of the outlook of many Israelis toward World Jewry. They establish Israel’s political and constitutional exceptionalism, a nation like no other nation.

 

Such aspirations and realities are covenantal. They are not based on a constitution, a contract or a treaty but rather on shared values. Nonetheless, they do carry significant practical implications. Primarily, they mandate that Israel’s Parliament, the Knesset and its executive branch hold themselves, and are held by others to be accountable to an entire constituency of Jews who are neither residents nor citizens of the State of Israel, and therefore are not voters. For example, this notion inspired the Law of Return that has been allowing every Jewish person to receive automatic Israeli residency and ultimately citizenship. It underlies Israel’s support of Jewish communities around the world in security, education and other matters.

 

At the same time, Israel’s essence as the nation-state of the Jewish People has driven world Jewry to extend remarkable economic and political support to it as if Israel was the subject of a global collective Jewish effort. It also legitimates the involvement of World Jews in what may seem to be ‘internal’ Israeli matters, such as arrangements relating to religious affairs or the well-being of Israel’s Arab minority. Naturally, most Israelis embrace the former and even take it for granted, but many reject the latter. Their outlook has been shaped by so-called ‘classical Zionism’.

 

THE RISE OF AND CHALLENGE TO THE CLASSICAL ZIONISM

 

For the past decades, the relationship between Israel and World Jews has not been one of equals. So-called ‘classical Zionism’ viewed Diaspora Jews as living a Jewish life that is ideologically inferior to that of Zionists in the Land of Israel and dismissed their legacy as an unending ordeal of misery, personal and communal insecurity, and poverty. The destiny of World Jewry was discarded as vulnerable to inevitable antisemitism and mass-assimilation, and therefore their existence was seen as temporary and their well-being was doomed to decline.

 

For the sake of the Jewish People and their own, Diaspora Jews should immigrate to Israel. Consequently, one of the chief goals of Zionism and the State of Israel was framed as the ‘ingathering of the exiles’. Indeed, during its first decades of existence, millions of Jews immigrated to Israel and entire Diaspora communities, some of which had existed for centuries and even millennia, repatriated to their ancestral homeland.

 

This outlook, known as the ‘negation of the Diaspora,’ increasingly became accepted and dominant throughout the Jewish world. Nazi persecutions and the Holocaust in 1933-1945 were seen as its ultimate historical and moral validation. But it was not until the astounding victory in 1967 that Zionism ascended to become the leading movement of the Jewish People. Henceforth, with a few exceptions on the Right and the Left, the leadership of World Jewry accepted this outlook, so much so that its communities underwrote thousands of immigration emissaries – shlichei aliyah – who came from Israel with the mission of dissolving Diaspora communities and helping all their members move to Israel.

 

Fifty years later, at the beginning of the 21st century, Diaspora Jewry is evidently more resilient than classical Zionism anticipated. Most of the remaining Diaspora communities are flourishing and American Jewry is probably the most influential and prosperous Jewish community in history. Moreover, hundreds of thousands of Israelis have chosen to move to the Diaspora and together they create an unprecedented and previously inconceivable phenomenon of an Israeli Jewish Diaspora.

 

Nonetheless, classical Zionism continues to prevail as the driving Israeli outlook on the Jewish People. It continues to hold that neither Israel nor the Jewish People needs a Diaspora, which is not viable in the long-run. Yet, this outlook naturally breeds arrogance toward and ignorance of World Jewry among Israeli civic and political leadership. It is suffice to explore the composition of Israel’s National Security Council, whose members rarely possess a deep insight into – or understanding of – World Jewry.

 

This tension exploded last year when the actions of the government were experienced by World Jewry as dismissive, bordering on abusive. The domineering narrative coming out of Israel was suddenly no longer acceptable among many thriving Jewish communities, whose leaderships, memberships and younger cohorts refused to be treated as second-class within the Jewish People. Shaking off their inferiority complex, they stood up to demand a discourse of equals in terms of their place in the history of the Jewish People and in its future.

 

Many conveniently view this crisis in the relationship between Israel and World Jewry as emanating from and the responsibility of ‘both sides’. They call for ‘discussion’ and ‘engagement’ based on civility, moderation and mutual respect. There is no doubt that these calls are worthy, but they also hide the true nature of this schism, which is about realignment of power within the Jewish World. In other words, World Jewry is communicating to Israel’s leadership that existing patterns of conduct cannot prevail without consequences, that its outlook must be more modest and that the use of its legislative and executive power must be more restrained and nuanced. This means that the heart of the adaptive work must take place among Israeli Zionists, who must embrace a new vision that holds equal standing of ‘in-Zion’ and ‘out-of-Zion’ Jewries in today’s Jewish world.

 

TOWARDS A NEW PARADIGM OF ISRAEL-WORLD JEWRY RELATIONS

 

The ideological cornerstone of such a new Zionist vision should be that Israel and World Jewry are an integrated global society, both having an equal moral standing and crucial significance for the future of the Jewish People. A vibrant Diaspora is not only important for Israel’s interests of economic well-being, security and international legitimacy, but is also integral to Israel’s purpose. Furthermore, the gathering of all Jews in Israel may be a disservice to the continued existence of the Jewish People and therefore to the mission of Zionism. Hence, continued significant existence of World Jewry is a Zionist imperative rather than a Zionist compromise. This notion existed in the past, such as in the works of A.D. Gordon in the early 20th century, but is now more relevant than ever before, as the centre of power in the Jewish world gravitates toward Israel.

 

Change must happen among the leaders of World Jewry as well. Rejecting the Israeli stance on the ‘Kotel Compromise’ and conversion issues should be complemented with a coherent narrative that is as powerful and unapologetic as that of classical Zionism, standing tall and proud of the Diaspora’s legacy and its legitimate place in the Jewish future. They must be confident that vibrant Diaspora Jewish life is as essential as Israel for a resilient and prosperous Jewish world and that both are true to the essence of Zionism and to the ethos of Israel.

 

There are solid historical foundations for the vision of Israel and the Diaspora as one integrated society. The first emanates from the notion of Jewish Peoplehood, which permeates Jewish thought since the Book of Exodus. As Avraham Infeld explains in his recent book Passion for a People, Jews are a family and a tribe, whose unity transcends its diversity and even internal adversity. Hence, communities like the anti-Zionist Satmers, US Reform Jews, and Israeli settlers are equally Jewish notwithstanding their diametrically opposed ideologies. Hence, ‘in-Zion’ and ‘out-of-Zion’ experience are also integral to the narrative of the Jewish People, notwithstanding the moral superiority of life in Zion that obviously exists in the Jewish religion.

 

Second, Jewish life outside of the Land of Israel – which has been continuous for 26 centuries – may be as resilient as Jewish sovereign existence, if not more. World Jewry is organised as a network of communities that permanently evolves in response to ever-changing technological, political and economic realities, while Jewish population gravitates around the world in pursuit of security, prosperity and freedoms. It is a matter of historical fact that World Jewry as a whole has survived and thrived, despite the rise and fall of individual communities and massive setbacks such as the Shoah or the expulsion from Spain. This history and structure confidently supports the prediction that hundreds of years from now, Jews will still be lighting Shabbat candles around the world. In other words, the structure of Diaspora Jewish society deserves deep respect by Israel’s leaders, since it is probably the most resilient in human history.

 

Third, Jewish contributions to humanity happened primarily outside of the Land of Israel. Indeed, Israel’s contribution to the world has been significant, outsized and distinct. But this is a recent phenomenon of the past few decades. Meanwhile, in the absence of sovereignty, World Jewry created remarkable ethics-based communities not only in thought but also in practice through a robust system of institutions of welfare, law, education, and other services, which have been embraced by many societies and inspired humanity.

 

Fourth, relations between ‘in-Zion’ and ‘out-of-Zion’ Judaism have been mutually reinforcing. Symbolically, the Torah was given in Sinai, out of Zion, and Hillel the Elder came to Jerusalem from Babylon with a vision that would transform Judaism to create so-called rabbinical Judaism. The Babylonian Talmud overshadows the Jerusalem Talmud as the leading Halachic text and nowadays rabbinical thought leadership and innovation are also ceaselessly emanating from the Diaspora and not just from Israel. Clearly, the State of Israel would not have not been created and thrived without the commitment of Diaspora Jewry, and today both societies support each other in countless ways, including security, education, legitimacy, and business.

 

A 21ST CENTURY AGENDA FOR ISRAEL-WORLD JEWRY RELATIONS

 

Once this essential outlook is formed, the question becomes: what should be the new agenda for Israel-World Jewry relations? It is a challenge of political balancing act. Israeli exceptionalism means that Israel must find ways to operate its democratic institutions, serving its citizens and residents, while adhering to its ethos as the nation-state of Jews worldwide. This tension has implications for the workings and actions of Israel’s government and legislature.

 

Israel accepting and respecting all Jewish denominations is clearly a cornerstone of such a vision. Consequently, a compromise around the Kotel must be found again and the blacklisting of rabbis cannot happen. But what else? How do we work our way ‘back from a future’ when Israel credibly remains a nation state for the entire Jewish People?

 

The first principle is significance. It calls for the government to uphold its relations with World Jewry as a matter of highest national security. Many may say that this is naturally the case. Notwithstanding the important and often revolutionary work of the Ministry of Diaspora Affairs and the efforts of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs through its diplomatic missions around the world, the reality is that the government has no official vision for this relationship, nor is there an institution with the power to coordinate and oversee the operations of Israel’ governmental agencies in this area.

 

The second principle relates to areas where the Knesset or the government must exercise self-restraint. These include conversions, kashrut, and other aspects of religious observance. In other words, the assertion of Israel’s sovereign legislative and executive power should have self-imposed limits in areas where it risks compromising the well-being of World Jewry. Israel’s top-down legislation and policy-making on such matters is inconsistent with the way the Jewish People has been evolving. Such matters obviously need to be legislated upon, but such legislation should be left to the jurisdiction of local communities and municipalities.

 

The third principle calls for a dialogue of equals. As mentioned, the onus is on both sides, albeit in different ways: classical Zionism must forgo its narrative of dominance and World Jewry leadership must assert their legitimacy as an equal contingent of the Jewish world. This fundamental change would have many concrete manifestations. For example, the Israeli education system must incorporate a narrative of Jewish peoplehood that is respectful of world Jewry, and Israel’s civil service leaders must have recurring immersive experiences among Jewish communities to ensure deep acquaintance with World Jewry. Some people refer to this idea as a ‘reverse birthright’ programme.

 

Fourth, there needs to be a shared vision for making a significant and unique contribution to humanity in the 21st century. For the first time in its history, the Jewish People is able to contribute to humanity not only qualitatively, through values and ideas, but also quantitatively by improving the lives of many millions of people through the use of technology. That ability must be translated into a commitment and a partnership, which is shared by all Jewish communities and the State of Israel, to making an outsized contribution to humanity.

 

Finally, much of the future of the relations between Israel and World Jewry depends on the strength of the institutions of the Jewish community. In most cases, the well-being of these institutions depends on their being non-partisan or bipartisan. Against this backdrop, the perception of the government as taking sides in internal political disputes primarily in the US can be highly detrimental to the cohesion of the community and its relations with Israel. Read More

Jewish view on medical ethic Abortion- Ari Afilalo

Ari Afilalo is a French Moroccan immigrant and a son of a Jewish Moroccan family. He is an activist of West Side Sephardic Synagogue. He lives in NYC and believes in Judaism ideology.

The approach of the Halachic laws remains unchanged. Halakhah laws or also known as Halakha laws is a collective body of Jewish religious laws. They are obtained from the Written and Oral Torah. They are used to since biblical times to order the religious practices and routine life. There are so many laws that are made for Jewish people and they need to follow them. Under the medical ethics, abortion is one of the categories that is elaborated in a great way in Judaism.

 

As we all know, that abortion is a process, in which the woman’s pregnancy is terminated artificially. Abortion is required sometimes due to health issues of the Jewish women and sometimes the health of the child itself is not well. It is seen many a time that if there is no growth in the health of the baby in the womb then the abortion is recommended by the doctors.  In Judaism, the abortion is not completely forbidden or completely allowed. The description and explanation vary according to time. So let’s have a look on them.

 

In the Biblical period- In case of quarrel, a financial fine was imposed for causing abortion of a woman’s fetus and the penalty of death if the woman’s own death resulted therefrom. In the Code of Hammurapi (no. 209, 210) there is a parallel quoted passages that “if the man strikes a woman with the child in her womb which hurts or cause the death of the child then that man is liable to pay ten shekalim for the loss of a child. If the women die due to the man then he must give the death sentence.

 

In the Talmudic times- In Talmudic periods, as in ancient Halakhah, abortion was not viewed as a crime unless the fetus was viable. Therefore, even if an infant is one day old only even then the killing of the infant is considered as murder. It is also said by some scholars and rabies that if the person kills a fetus in the women’s womb then he is dishonoring the God who helps it in its generation. Abortion is allowed if the fetus threatens the life of the mother.

 

As a rule, halacha does not assign relative values to different lives. Therefore, almost all major poskim (Rabbis qualified to decide matters of Jewish law) ban abortion in cases of abnormalities or deformities found in a fetus. Ari Afilalo is a French Moroccan immigrant and a son of a Jewish Moroccan family. He is an activist of West Side Sephardic Synagogue. He lives in NYC and believes in Judaism ideology. To know more about the abortion-related questions, click here.

What Are The Holiest places In Jerusalem?

What Are The Holiest places In Jerusalem? Judaism is one of the oldest religions in the world. People who believe in the Judaism are known as Jews. Today, Jewish people are living all over the world. In the United States, there are many well-known personalities living, one of them is Ari Afilalo.

What Are The Holiest places In Jerusalem?

Judaism is one of the oldest religions in the world. People who believe in the Judaism are known as Jews. Today, Jewish people are living all over the world. In the United States, there are many well-known personalities living, one of them is Ari Afilalo. He is a renowned professor who has a good command over the international trade laws. He is a Shepherd Jew. In this blog, we will discuss cities which are believed by the Jewish as “The Holiest.”  There are mainly four cities which are considered as holy. These are Jerusalem, Hebron, Safed, and Tiberias. We have highlighted some of the important information among these four cities.

 

Jerusalem- Jewish Spiritual Center for Millennia- It is the first holiest city of the Jewish people since tenth century BCE. In this long history, the Jerusalem has seen bad and good times. The place has been destroyed two times, attacked 52 times, conquered or recaptured 44 times and besieged 23 times.  The walls of the city were built by the Turks in 1538. Jerusalem includes all important branches of the building used by the Israeli government. The residences of the Prime Minister and the President, the Supreme Court, the Knesset (parliament of Israel), and the Bank of Israel. The Kotel (the Western Wall) is one of the most popular places of Jerusalem. It is also said that some of the halachic laws are only applied in Jerusalem.

 

Hebron- This place is a place where most of the Jewish patriarchs and matriarchs are buried such as- Sara, Isaac, Abraham, Leah, Rebecca, and Jacob. It is considered as the second holiest city for the Jewish. It is important to mention here that it is the city which was bought by the Abraham from the Hittites whereas, Jerusalem was bought by King David from the Jebusites. Before Jerusalem, the Hebron was the capital of Jewish.

 

Tzfat- Tzfat is also named as Safed. It also regarded as a holy city after the introduction of the Jews following the exile from Spain in 1492. This place is also known as for burial issues as many popular personalities and holy rabbis are buried in this place. The graves are one of the reasons of pilgrimage, such as Isaac Luria, Rabbis Hayyim Vital, Moshe Alshich, Joseph Karo and Shlomo Alkabetz, among others.

 

Tiberius- Tiberius is the place where the Talmud is composed by the rabbis. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the place grew as a huge hub of Jewish education. To know more about Jewish culture or places, click here.

Cosmetic Surgery- A Jewish View

Ari Afilalo is another renowned personality of New York. He is a French Moroccan immigrant and strongly believes in the Judaism and is an active member of West Side Sephardic Synagogue.

Judaism is one of the world’s oldest religions. Many renowned personalities belong to this religion. Mark Zuckerberg, also believes in the Judaism. Ari Afilalo is another renowned personality of New York. He is a French Moroccan immigrant and strongly believes in the Judaism and is an active member of West Side Sephardic  Jewish Synagogue.  

 

In this fast-moving and changing, world everybody wants to look good and pretty. This is the reason many people are now considering cosmetic surgery seriously. Cosmetic surgery is usually done to enhance the looks of an individual. But, is cosmetic procedures permissible according to Jewish laws?  

 

In this blog, we will discuss this briefly. As this topic is discussed and explained by many modern poskim. Poskin is a legal scholar who has the authority to decide the Halakha in case if the old tradition needs explanation or analysis. Several poskim explain and address this issue in different ways. Rabbies have a different point of view on this particular discussion.   

 

According to the Jewish laws and explanations, the human body is not a personal property of an individual. The human body belongs to God and it is a loan which the God has given every one of us. To worship and to pray to God, souls alone can’t recite the prayers, they need a physical body which must not be mutilated in any way. Healing itself is more preferred than the healing with surgeries.

 

But those health problems or illnesses that can’t be healed themselves, surgeries and these treatments are allowed. But the question again arises is that pure cosmetic procedures are permitted or not? According to Jacob Breisch- a rabbi explained with proofs taken from the Talmud that these surgeries can be done in case they cause psychological pain. Sometimes the psychological pain may occur due to abnormal features.  Another rabbi explains that the Torah only forbids self-pain when done with evil, or in a degrading way. They are permitted because they are not life-threatening procedures or treatments. Do you have any query regarding the cosmetic procedure, and regarding the Torah prohibition or preclude? If yes, click here.

Why do Jews people put stones on graves?

Ari Afilalo is a French Moroccan immigrant and an important part of West Side Sephardic Synagogue. He belongs to a Jewish Moroccan family who grew up in France. Now, he is a well-known personality who lives in NY and believes in Judaism ideology.

In Judaism, it is a tradition to put stones or pebbles on a grave. But why they prefer to put pebbles instead of flowers? In this blog, we will discuss some of the reasons why Jewish people place stones on the graves. Ari Afilalo is a French Moroccan immigrant and an important part of West Side Sephardic Synagogue. He belongs to a Jewish Moroccan family who grew up in France. Now, he is a well-known personality who lives in NY and believes in Judaism ideology. The reason behind this practice has many different reasons and varies from one to another.

 

According to the Jewish law Talmud, it is mentioned that when a person dies, the soul con­tinues to stay for sometime in the grave where the body was buried. So, whenever somebody keeps the stone on the grave it means that stones or pebbles keep the soul down in this world. Also, it is said that stones and pebbles keep the evils away from the graves.

 

Stones last longer than flowers- In Christians, the tradition of keeping the flowers on the grave is common but Jewish people place stones or pebbles on the grave. They believe that flowers themselves die after some time whereas the stones never die. They symbolize permanent memory and legacy of an individual.

 

Some rabbi gave another interpretation that pebble is known as tz’ror in a Hebrew which means bond. Moreover, the stone shows the bond towards the individual’s memory. People choose some interesting and attractive stones or pebbles to place on the grave of their loved ones.

 

It is important to mention here that there is no tradition of cremation in Jews. Jewish people are strongly against cremation. If you want to know more about the religion of Jews, click here.

Gender equality in Jewish rabbis and feminism

Form last many years the role of the women is a concerned topic which has risen a lot of question in the Jewish community. In ancient times, the role of women was very limited

Form last many years the role of the women is a concerned topic which has risen a lot of question in the Jewish community. In ancient times, the role of women was very limited. But now, due to influence by trends in secular feminism, women are participating in several rituals and leadership. Most of the traditional community has uprooted the barrier of not participating in the various religious events whereas in Jewish the exclusion of women remains there.

Women in Traditional Jewish Sources- There is no role of women in the big and well known religious books whereas the in Genesis- a story of creation, the women are introduced equal to men. In some laws, the place of women is supposed to be under the authority of their husbands and fathers.


In Talmud and Midrash, the rabbis have discussed the role and status of the women in Judaism more openly and in a clear manner. Rabbinic experts define women as licentious, foolish, and idiotic but also kind and intelligent. It is also claimed by many that some of the rabbis have tempered the biblical laws to better the conditions for women.

In middle ages, the Jewish laws had scripted the life of women and their role. In addition to this, the general settings of Jewish communities had an important impact on the lives of the women. In the Muslim areas, women tended to be safer than in the areas of the Christians. In certain cases, it is seen that the Jewish community was more helpful and generous in the Islamic areas. According to the Hebrew law, the right of a woman must induce divorce whereas, the  Talmud was in the favor of it. It is important to mention here that some of the European rabbis tried to restrict this right.

Even today, the Jewish feminists want to exclude Jewish women from traditional rituals and practices. For these feminists, the male is one of the important parts of the Judaism. To know more about the role of women in Judaism, contact Ari Afilalo.

Different foods at different occasions- Ari Afilalo

Ari Afilalo- a specialist in international trade law, business transactions, and contracts. He is a French Moroccan immigrant and an active member of West Side Sephardic Synagogue who lives in NYC.

Ari Afilalo– a specialist in international trade law, business transactions, and contracts. He is a French Moroccan immigrant and an active member of West Side Sephardic Synagogue who lives in NYC. He is Jewish by religion and a son of a Jewish Moroccan family, who grew up in France.

 

Jewish people eat different food on different occasions. Some of the different foods made on the different occasions are discussed below-


Food on the Hanukkah- One of the best foods eaten by the Jewish on the Hanukkah is fried food, especially the latkes. Typically these foods are made in the olive oil. Latkes are a delicious way to tell the story of this eight-night holiday. The fried as well as dairy food, are included under Hanukkah foods.

 

Passover food- The major Jewish groups that are- Sephardic and Ashkenazi, prohibit the eating of chametz during Passover as directed in the Torah. Chametz includes any food product or recipe made grains such as- rye, wheat, spelt, oats, and barley. Sephardic Jews consume Kitniyot during Passover which includes- corn, peanuts, rice, Poppy Seeds, soybeans, millet, peas, green beans, sesame seeds, mustard, and dried beans and lentils. Other foods may include- any kind of fruit, Beef, chicken, turkey, duck, goose, or fish with scales, a kosher butcher or sold as a kosher cut of meat, and eggs and egg whites.


Purim Food- Purim is one of the happiest of Jewish holidays. It celebrates the survival of the Jews in Ancient Persia when they were set for slaughter at the hands of the king’s advisor, Haman. Some of the famous foods are- Vegan Challah, mushroom and potato dumplings, Iranian eggplant and chickpeas stew with coconut-almond sauce, Persian style potato pancakes (Kuku Sib-Zamini) and many more.
Yom Kippur food- Breaking the Fast- The holiday of Yom Kippur is one of reflection, repentance, prayer, all of which takes place while fasting. At the end of the Yom Kippur, Jews people share a joyful breakfast meal that includes the- eggs, cheese, and bread. Other foods include- fresh fruit salad, beverages such as- fresh juice, tea, and coffee. To know more about the foods and the occasions, click here.

Ari Afilalo on Jewish Genetic Diseases

Ari Afilalo belongs to the Sephardic Jews community and is very close to the jews pedagogy and laws. As Jews are further divided into categories, as- Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardic and Mizrahi Jews.

There are many Jewish personalities who are settled in the United States. Ari Afilalo is one of them. He belongs to the Sephardic Jewish community and is very close to the pedagogy and laws. In this blog, we will discuss genetic diseases that are common in the Jewish community.

 

Diseases are common in each and every community or place. But some diseases are genetic diseases, which are passed on through the generations. The autosomal recessive disorder is a rare genetic disease which is common in Jewish people in comparison to the other populations. Autosomal recessive diseases are a rare type of disease that can be transferred from parents to their children without the parents themselves suffering from the disorder. Parents can carry the gene which causes the disorder in the children. There is about a 50 % chance of becoming immune to this type of disorder.

 

Jews are further divided into smaller categories, such as Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardic and Mizrahi Jews. In Ashkenazi Jews, it is estimated that out of three, one person will carry one of about nineteen genetic diseases. In comparison to other communities, Jews have higher carrier rate for more than 40 genetic diseases. Some commonly known diseases include Cystic Fibrosis, Gaucher disease, Tay-Sachs, Nemaline Myopathy and Walker Warburg disease. Mizrahi and Sephardic Jews also carry some rare disorders.

 

Some diseases are considered to be more common among Jews because of the founder effect, as genetic diversity is reduced and the population drops to a small number. In addition to that, Jews are often directed to marry only another Jew. This is the reason that the genetic mutations keep being passed to the next generations as they weren’t reduced by the introduction of new genes. There has been a strong decline in genetic diseases since the 1970s. To find out more click here.

Have a Look at Some Important Jewish Prayers Ari Afilalo

Jewish people have their own living style and some different ethics. Judaism is a religion followed by jews people. This has been established since the earliest days of Judaism.

Jewish people have their own living style and some different ethics. Judaism is a religion followed by jews people. This has been established since the earliest days of Judaism. In the Torah, you will see many references to “the strangers who dwell among you” or “righteous proselytes” or “righteous strangers.” These are different groups of non-Jews who lived among Jews, adopting some or all of the beliefs and practices of Judaism without going through the formal process of conversion and becoming Jews. If the person converted to Judaism, he was treated as a Jewish and was not referred to any special term. In this blog, we will discuss some of the different methods of prayers and different events on which the prayers are performed.

 

The Shema- The Shema is the prayer which Jews recite in the daily morning and evening prayer services. It is considered as the most important prayer in Judaism by some people. It has a meaning of affirmation of God’s singularity and kingship. The meaning of the prayer is the declaration of Jewish faith in which it is considered as that the Lord is one, Lord is our God. It also specifies that if the God’s commands are heeded that results in its proper season, wine and oil, grass in the fields for cattle, a gathering of grain, and abundant food. If the God’s will is flouted and other gods are worshipped, none of those blessings will come.

 

Prayer for the sick- Mi Sheberakh is the central and main prayer performed when there is somebody sick. With a holistic view of humankind, it prays for physical cure as well as spiritual healing, asking for restoration, blessing, compassion, and strength, for the one in the community who is facing illness.

 

Shabbat blessings for Friday night- On Friday evening, there are also a number of blessings that are traditionally recited in the home. People light the candles when the sunset approaches on Friday which is the traditional sign of the arrival of Shabbat. After lighting the candles, Jews recite the Shabbat prayer after covering the eyes.
The largest Jewish communities are in Israel and the United States, with other major areas where the Jews live, are- France, Argentina, Russia, England, and Canada. Ari Afilalo is a well-known Sephardic Jew with expert knowledge of the religion.

Thirteen Creeds of Judaism Ari Afilalo

A religion created centuries back, Judaism is one of oldest religions of the world with about 17.4 million followers. The religion is based on its 13 fundamental truths and its foundations. The foundations were written by Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon in 12th century.

A religion created centuries back, Judaism is one of oldest religions of the world with about 17.4 million followers. The religion is based on its 13 fundamental truths and its foundations. The foundations were written by Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon in 12th century. He is also known as Maimonides or Rambam. The foundation he wrote are also known as Thirteen Creeds or Thirteen Attributes of Faith.

Part of the Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon’s commentary, the creeds have become core to the religion of Judaism. These principles are followed diligently by the orthodox Jewish community.

Thirteen Attributes of Faith

The followers of the sect believe in these thirteen creeds. These sects define the basics of the religion that any member should know and believe:

  1. Unwavered belief in the existence of God. He is believed to be the Creator.
  2. The belief in God’s absolute and unparalleled unity.
  3. God is affected by any physical occurrences, such as movement, or rest, or dwelling.
  4. God is eternal.
  5. The prayers made must be directed directly to God. Any other false gods should be ignored and renounced.
  6. God communicated through the prophecy with the man. The prophecy will always be true.
  7. Moses is primary prophet of the Judaism. The teacher of all Jews.
  8. Torah (written as well as oral) is of divine origin.
  9. Torah is permanent.
  10. The God is omniscience. He knows all about the thoughts and deeds of the man.
  11. Messiah will come and so will the messianic era.
  12. The belief in divine reward and karmic retribution.
  13. The belief in the resurrection of the dead.

Ari Afilalo, a Sephardic Jew with expert knowledge of the religion, explains that Judaism believes in “What is hateful to you, do not do to your neighbor.” The thirteen creeds are just details of this statement.

Conclusion       

These foundations are explained in detail and are believed by existing and new members of the community. If any members doubts these creeds, they have to leave the community.

7 myths debunked about Hanukkah Jewish holiday

Judaism is one of the ancient religions of the world. The followers are known as Jews. There are so many festivals that Jews celebrate. One of the holiday is Hanukkah.

Judaism is one of the ancient religions of the world. The followers are known as Jews. There are so many festivals that Jews celebrate. One of the holiday is Hanukkah. There are so many myths surrounding this holiday that people are generally confused. Here are top 7 myths about Hanukkah busted:

 

What is Hanukkah?

Known as Festival of Lights, Hanukkah starts at sundown december 12th. The name “Hanukkah” derives from the Hebrew verb which means “to dedicate”.

 

Myth #1: Hanukkah is an important jewish holiday

IT is actually one of the least important holiday in the Judaism. The important holidays actually are: Rosh Hashanah, Shavuot, Yom Kippur, Sukkot, and Pesach.

 

Myth #2: Hanukkah is Jewish Christmas

The Festival is actually celebration of rededication of the second Jewish temple after the defeat of Syrian army. It is NOT a Jewish Christmas.

 

Myth #3: The oil burned for 8 days and 8 nights

This story is believed to be created by the Jewish rabbis hundreds of years later.

 

Myth #4: Latkes are a traditional Hanukkah food

Latkes have their origin the Eastern Europe. They do not belong to ancient Israel and are NOT traditional food.

 

Myth #5: It is a necessary that a gift should be given each of the 8 nights of Hanukkah

It’s a nice custom to give gifts, but there’s no religious mandate to do so.

 

Myth #6: On Hanukkiah Jewish families light the menorah

What some people believe is menorah is actually called Hanukkiah. The main difference is that the menorah holds less candles than Hanukkiah.

 

Myth #7: Dreidel is a traditional Jewish game to celebrate the festival

The game of Dreidel was actually a cover up created by the children. This was done when Torah learning was banned and people were forced underground.

 
Some of the major Jew personalities settled in the state of New York are Ari Afilalo, Jack Warner, Woody Allen and more. The present community of Jews in the New York takes pride in their roots and still remain close to them. Want to know more about Jewish customs and holidays? Visit here.

Some Biggest Myths About Jews And Judaism Ari Afilalo

Ari Afilalo is a French Moroccan immigrant living in New York City. He is an active member of West Side Sephardic Synagogue in the city and an expert of International trade laws.

We all know that Judaism is one of the oldest religion existing in the world. Jews have a long history. Due to change in the mixing and influence of other cultures and areas, the culture and its rituals have changed and manipulated by many people across the world. There are many myths about the Jews and Judaism which is a result of lack of knowledge and education. Some of them will make you laugh and some are too shocking. Below we will discuss some of the myths.

 

Jews people have horns- In the Middle Age, a popular mistake about a line from the Torah ended up in false customs.The myth spread through a Latin misinterpretation of Exodus 34:35, which says,

 

“And the children of Israel saw Moses’ face, that his skin became Karan, and Moses put the veil back upon his face until he went in to speak with God.”

 

Karan is a Hebrew term which means radiance. But was misinterpreted by St. Jerome as Keren which means horns in Hebrew. It was then misinterpreted and believed that Moses was horned. As a result, due to this misunderstanding, the Jews were compared to devil-like creatures having horns that further evolved into tales and stories. To portray Jews, many people use these perceptions in their campaigns and showcase Jews as an inferior group.

 

Orthodox women are compelled to shave their heads- According to Jewish law, there is no need or compulsion of shaving the heads. Moreover, it is nowhere written that a women have to shave their heads after they are married not even if she is covering her head and hair. Most women grow their hair long, they just keep it tied up. There are many women who keep them short, and there are some of them who shave their heads.

 

The practice of shaving the women’s head after marriage developed in the world of Chasidic Judaism. Although there are many origin stories for this tradition, but it is not a part of Judaism. However, Jewish law does states that it is important for husband and wife to be attractive to one another, so a shaved head might be out of the question.

 

There are around 6.8 millions jews in the United States of America. Ari Afilalo is a French Moroccan immigrant living in New York City. He is an active member of West Side Sephardic Synagogue in the city and an expert of International trade laws. He has written a book on these laws in which he stressed on boundary-free trade across the countries. He is deeply attached to the jews culture and their music.

The First Wave: Sephardic Jews- Ari Afilalo

The history of Jewish culture in America often begins with the immigration of Jews in three major waves. Each wave included the group that was vastly different from another.

The history of Jewish culture in America often begins with the immigration of Jews in three major waves. Each wave included the group that was vastly different from another. As the Jews were settled all over the world, their culture differentiated from each other, in terms of food, social and economic terms. The entry of majority of immigrants from these waves was through New York. While there were groups who began their journey in the different parts of the country, the major Jewish immigrant settlement is still present in New York. Some of the major Jew personalities settled in the state of New York are Ari Afilalo, Jack Warner, Woody Allen and more.

 

The First Wave

 

The first wave of Jew immigrants in the United States of America were the Sephardic Jewish. They came from Brazil fleeing from the Spanish Inquisition. In 1654, 23 Spanish-Portuguese adults came and settle in the Dutch port of New Amsterdam — the city now known as the New York City. In 1655, more Jews from Holland immigrated to the country and made their home in the New York City. While the governor of the New Amsterdam tried to deport the newly arrived immigrants, the Dutch West India Company (owner of the colony) overruled the decision and helped the immigrants to create a life in the new country.

 

For the next decade, the Jews worked hard and changed their fortune. In 1664, the Britishers assumed the role of the owners of the colony. They made no large-scale changes except renaming the city New York City. They let the city remain a racially and religiously diverse city that became a haven for immigrants around the world. All the Jews in the small community did not become huge successes with the exception of Asser Levy. However, with the advent of the Britishers, the Jews thrived and took part in the political as well as financial sectors of the country.

 

The process of naturalization in 1727 helped the Jews to become an integral part of America. They achieved their citizenship in 1740.

 

The present community of Sephardic Jews in the New York takes pride in their roots and still remain close to them. Want to know more about Sephardic Jews? Visit here.

Do you know what are the different festivals celebrated by the jews?

Ari Afilalo is a renowned international trade expert who belongs to jews community. He grew up with the Sephardic culture. He is a well-known member of the West Side Sephardic Jew community.

Jews group originated in the Israel. Jews originated as an ethnic and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE. But after that, they migrated to some other parts of the world. They have a rich history, identity, and culture. Before the Second World War, the population of Jewish reached to 16.7 million which was around 0.7 percent of the total world population. More than 6 million Jews were orderly murdered during the Holocaust. The population of Jews has slowly increased and was estimated 14.4 million in 2016. According to data available on the internet, the maximum population (44%) resides in the Israel, which is estimated at 6.3 million. 40% people live in the United States (5.7 million), rest of them are living in Europe (1.4 million) and Canada (0.4 million). In this blog, we will discuss some of the festivals that are celebrated by the jews.

 

Rosh Hashanah- Rosh Hashanah is celebrated as the New Year of the Jewish. It is celebrated in the mid of September. The ten days beginning with Rosh Hashanah are known as the days of Awe. In the awe days, it is preferred to not to do any work. On the eve of the new year people greet each other and cook a lot of sweets at home. Moreover, it is the day when people apologize to them whom they have hurt.

 

Yom Kippur- Yom Kippur is the auspicious day on which attendance in the synagogue is compulsory. It is a day of fasting and confession of all crimes and offenses they have done in the past and they ask for the forgiveness. On Yom Kippur Jews believe that God makes the last judgment on everybody that who will live, die, prosper and fail during the next year, and it is believed that he seals his judgment in the Book of Life.

 

Passover or Pesach- This is considered to be one of the most important Jewish festivals. On this day, Jews remember the story of the Israelites liberation from slavery in Egypt. They sing songs and take blessings from the elders and the elders teach the importance and meaning of symbolism to the children.

 

Tu B’Shevat- It is the Jewish New Year for Trees. On this particular day, Jews eat the fruit of new trees which were planted three years back. The fourth year’s fruit was to be tithed to the synagogue. The main foods that are taken by Jews are barley, olives, wheat, figs, dates, and grapes. Planting trees is another tradition.

 

Ari Afilalo is a renowned international trade expert who belongs to jews community. He grew up with the Sephardic culture. He is a well-known member of the West Side Sephardic Jew community. Moreover, he is a master in international trade law and business transactions.

International Trade Law for the domestic market-Ari Afilalo

International trade refers to the exchange of goods, services, and capital produces across the international borders and territories. The international trade is governed by the set of laws. These set of laws include the laws of international organizations such as WTO and GATT along with the laws of the respective countries. The countries trading usually have a treaty agreement along with defined laws.

International trade refers to the exchange of goods, services, and capital produces across the international borders and territories. The international trade is governed by the set of laws. These set of laws include the laws of international organizations such as WTO and GATT along with the laws of the respective countries. The countries trading usually have a treaty agreement along with defined laws.

 

International Trade in Domestic Market

The two main areas of international trade in the domestic market include:

 

    • Trade remedy work
      According to the international trade law expert Ari Afilalo, the trade remedy work is very necessary. It is the corrective tool that can create a bridge between the government and the international trade laws. The imports that cause grave injury to the domestic market can be brought under control. The activities such as dumping can be prohibited under the anti-dumping trade activities.

 

  • Imports sanctions/control
    Similarly, under the export control or sanctions, the domestic market can be revived by placing controls over the imported materials. More government subsidies and fewer prices should be added to make it easy on the domestic businessmen.

 

 

What do international trade lawyers do?

The experts on international trade law advise the US organizations as well as institutions on the various deals and contracts. The US companies hire international trade lawyers to counsel them on the various matters, compliance rules, and loopholes. The experts such as Ari Afilalo also conduct internal investigations, represent them against the government or look into the violations of the law.

Are you interested in pursuing a career as an International Trade Lawyer?

 

If you want to be or are interested in the career as an international trade lawyer, you need quite a number of skills, aside from the academics, an international trade lawyer needs to have smart and skills to succeed.

 

  1. Language skill is a very big asset. It means that you’ll be able to work and assist the foreign clients and companies. You will even be able to work with the government.
  2. Other useful skills include applying complex statues, writing, an understanding of banking/finance, negotiation and more.
  3. If you are interested in trade remedy, make sure you study economics.

Want to know more? Read Ari Afilalo’s The New Global Trading Order: The Evolving State and the Future of Trade.

Do the international trade laws need to be changed?

Ari Afilalo is a renowned professor whose new book has taken the law world in a storm. His belief that the State and the international trade laws can work without any friction has put people in awe of him.

Globalization has transformed the world in a global village. No matter what you want, you can get it with the tap of your finger. People and organizations are connected by a huge group of communications network. Globalization also has changed the world economy. The trade between the countries is driven by the market of demand and supply. Communications and travel now concern the assets, good, labor and services.  Now decentralized, the world bears the brunt of globalization.

 

International Trade and Mercantilism

 

The international trade is governed by the international trade laws but influenced by mercantilism. Mercantilism believers state that a country to export more than its imports. The trade began between the countries with the silk route and since then has progressed to the services. In the 21st century where capitalism plays a major part, mercantilism has no space in anything but laws.

The Evolving State and the Future of Trade

 

Ari Afilalo, professor of Law at Rutgers-Camden School of Law in his new book, “The New Global Trading Order: The Evolving State and the Future of Trade” states that new changes and practical changes need to be adopted in the international trade laws. Various organization in relation to the international trade laws need to be supplemented with better regulatory frameworks.

 

Ari Afilalo researched subjects like international trade, international business transactions, and the European Union laws to formulate his much loved theories.

 

Ari Afilalo is a renowned professor whose new book has taken the law world in a storm. His belief that the State and the international trade laws can work without any friction has put people in awe of him. The constitutional law of the country (state) can co-exist better with the new global trading order only after the much-needed changes are made in the laws. With his expertise and knowledge, the professor of law suggests the required and effective practical measures that can change the course of global trade. Want to read more about State and the international trade law? Make sure you pick up Afilalo’s new book.

International Trade Law and the Nature of State

Our world is nothing but a huge marketplace. It is a place where trade laws govern and direct the consumer through various arrangements. Nonetheless, to understand the intricacies of the law, it necessary that we look for the expert to impart the knowledge. Ari Afilalo is one such expert. His knowledge of international trade renowned worldwide.

Our world is nothing but a huge marketplace. It is a place where trade laws govern and direct the consumer through various arrangements. Nonetheless, to understand the intricacies of the law, it necessary that we look for the expert to impart the knowledge. Ari Afilalo is one such expert. His knowledge of international trade renowned worldwide.

International trade initiated in the fourteenth century and since then it has evolved in numerous ways. What began with silk and spices from China, progressed to the commodities. With globalization, commodities transformed into services and the world became a global village. To improve and improvise the limitations of the trade, it is necessary to improve and improvise the trade laws constantly.

The New Global Trading Order

 

Professor of Law at Rutgers-Camden School of Law, Afilalo has given his life to teach the global trade scenario and work towards the betterment of the society. His latest book, The New Global Trading Order: The Evolving State and the Future of Trade gives his unique insight into the world of trading. The new globe trade order tells about various discrepancies that have changed the physiognomy of global trade. With his expertise and knowledge, Ari Afilalo suggests not only strong but effective practical measures that can change the course of global trade.

 

Ari Afilalo based theories for his research on these major subjects:

  • International Trade
  • International Business Transactions
  • European Union Laws

 

Relationship Between International Trade Laws & the State

 

Interconnected with a common aim, these three subjects aim to explore the relationship between the international trade laws and the nature of State. Ari Afilalo’s new book also focuses on the same working relationship. He also explores the form of the trade order since the postmodern era and adds his insights to the various regulatory frameworks and numerous current institutions that need to be changed or supplemented. Similar to this concept, Ari Afilalo also examines the relationship between the constitutional law of the country (State) and the international law and how they can co-exist better. He argues that the norms that shape the State should also shape the international trade law so that there is a minimum friction between the two. You can read in detail about the relationship between the state and the international trade law in Ari Afilalo’s book – The New Global Trading Order.

Today, We Are All Abraham

The Akedah (Binding) of Isaac is a major motif of the Rosh Hashana liturgy. Our Sages asked why, as Abraham was on the verge of slaughtering his son as a sacrifice to G-d, the Angel who stopped him had to cry out twice “Abraham, Abraham!” Wasn’t one scream enough?

The Akedah (Binding) of Isaac is a major motif of the Rosh Hashana liturgy.  Our Sages asked why, as Abraham was on the verge of slaughtering his son as a sacrifice to G-d,  the Angel who stopped him had to cry out twice “Abraham, Abraham!”  Wasn’t one scream enough?

 

One logical explanation refers to the urgency of the situation, with Isaac in a near-death binding, his father knife in hand ready to slay him.  The Angel could not risk Abraham missing out on the first scream.  A deeper explanation, however, is more relevant to us as we celebrate Rosh Hashana today:

 

Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov, reviewing the four biblical instances where a divine call repeats the name of the human who was addressed (Abraham, Jacob, Moses and Samuel), interprets the second call as addressing the Jew who, in every generation, will find her- or himself in the same situation as the original ancestor.

 

In every generation, there will be Abrahams, Jacobs, Moses and Samuels, facing the same hardship.  And G-d will be with them too.

 

In the case of Abraham, the situation involved the potential loss of a dream.  Abraham and Sarah, at age 99 and 90, had achieved the dream of having a child.  Isaac, the Midrash tells us, was the spitting image of his father.  When the Angel called out to him, Abraham had resigned himself to losing that dream.  His mirror image, the “son whom he loved,” was about to die at his hand.

 

Yet, even in that darkest of moments, G-d stayed with Abraham.  G-d plucked out and rescued the dream of Abraham’s life from the near-ashes of the Altar. Isaac would live, and Abraham would, as promised, be the father of many nations, including us Jews.

 

Today, on Rosh Hashanah, we are all Abraham.  As we take stock of the year that ends, we remember the dreams that we had to sacrifice because of the exigencies of our lives, whether they be family, work, or health.  And we also reflect on the dreams, individual or national, that seem to get away from us and become more and more unattainable.

 

Click Here To Read Full Article-: http://blogs.timesofisrael.com/today-we-are-all-abraham/

A Sneak Look at Universal Exchange and Financial Improvement

Ari Afilalo is one of the specialists of worldwide exchange and monetary improvement, he has exceedingly advertised his profound bits of knowledge into the subject.

Worldwide exchange is no oddity, it is a genuinely referred to theme as various nations over the globe have certain arrangement of exchange laws and general directions. Ari Afilalo is one of the specialists of worldwide exchange and monetary improvement, he has exceedingly advertised his profound bits of knowledge into the subject. The preparation and research of Afilalo depends on the accompanying:

 

  1. Diverse International business exchanges
  2. European Union laws
  3. Worldwide exchange or business

 

The great past has countless of universal exchange and financial advancement. Back in the fourteenth and in addition the fifteenth century, an extensive number of dealers worked far and wide to transport silk and flavors. From the terrain China to various European countries, quick cruising and inconceivably immense ship vessels transported tea starting with one a player on the planet then onto the next even in the seventeenth century. Considering this we can find out that remote exchange has majorly affected the monetary improvement of the worldwide exchanging countries.

 

Role of International Trade in Overall Development

 

Distinction of Suppositions: For international exchange and also monetary improvement, plainly all leading countries around the globe are associated with import and fare of major farming items and in addition capital merchandise. Their business is on the upper level of universal business, along these lines making gigantic benefits and assuming significant part in the improvement of the countries.

 

Winning From Remote Trades: Keeping in mind the end goal to control destitution, Foreign exchange offers enormous help, alongside bringing various profitable advantages.

 

Market Extension: Universal exchange is additionally reliable for the expansion underway of a country. Outside exchange is one of the real purposes for the surplus market extension crosswise over various creating countries. Diverse countries with insufficient or less profitable markets eye remote countries to pick up riches and capital premiums.

 

For Augmenting Ventures: Outside exchange constantly rouses organizations around the globe to develop and make rich ventures for creating an ever increasing number of merchandise, along these lines expanding the general speculation proportion.

 

A solid part and promoter of the Sephardic people group, Afilalo has penned a progressive book on universal exchange laws which gives a point by point bits of knowledge into all major monetary elements influencing worldwide exchange.

An Insight To The Sephardic Community With Ari Afilalo

Ari Afilalo is a famous name in the field of international trade law, business exchanges and contracts. His studious engagements include the treatment of licensed innovation in facilitated commerce territories, the European Union’s arrangement of legal cures the law representing the end of non-tax boundaries to exchange, and the global tenets for the security of cross-border speculation.

Ari Afilalo is a famous name in the field of international trade law, business exchanges and contracts. His studious engagements include the treatment of licensed innovation in facilitated commerce territories, the European Union’s arrangement of legal cures the law representing the end of non-tax boundaries to exchange, and the global tenets for the security of cross-border speculation.

 

Afilalo And The Ladino Script

 

Apart from this, he is an eminent individual from the Sephardic Jewish people group in New York shares that Ladino in composing utilizes Hebrew letters and regularly take the base from Rashi script. It is intriguing to take note that initially, Rashi was a Ladino script, which was utilized to separate his works and editorials from others after his passing. Over the twentieth century, Ladino has stayed the course with the Latin letter sets.

 

Who Are Sephardics?

 

In the wake of leaving Spain after ejection in 1492 the Jews that proceeded alluded as “Sephardics”. The word Sephardim has its starting points from the Spanish word Hebrew, as Sepharad in the book of scriptures.

 

There is some verifiable proof that proposes that Jews lived in Spain amid the administer of King Solomon. In spite of the fact that there isn’t much chronicled confirm until the start of the first century, there is some learning that builds up Council of Toledo passing a decree in 305 CE which denied Jews from connecting and gift both Jewish and non-Jewish yields moreover restricting the groups to eat together.

 

After numerous years the Sephardi Jews safeguarded their way of life and dialect holding it in unique renown. Here are a few realities you should know about their dialect:

 

  • Ladino-a blend of Spanish and Hebrew is still in the presence and is in practice by some Sephardic Jewish people group.
  • An oriental rendition of Ladino was utilized as a part of and around Turkey while a more western form won in Greece Bosnia, Romania, Serbia and Macedonia.
  • Subsequent to leaving Portugal and Spain the group spoke Ladino till the fifteenth century keeping up a similar syntax. However, the ousted groups in Amsterdam, Italy, and London kept up a contact with Spain and moved the Castillian Spanish.
  • The dialect built up various vernaculars when banished groups in the Ottoman Empire held the fifteenth-century Spanish dialect with a few words from Turkish, Hebrew, French,  Arabic and Greek making a preoccupation from Castilian Spanish.
  • A portion of the spots where it’s talked incorporate France, Turkey, Romania, Bulgaria, Greece, and a few sections of Latin America while the most Ladino-talking group is common in Israel.

Dialect displays the way of life of each group or community. Afilalo is knowledgeable with the historical backdrop of dialects, utilized as a part of antiquated ages. He made sincere efforts by lending a helping hand the general population of Sephardi Jews to safeguarded deliberately dialect as well as cultural values.

Jewish Views On the Messiah- Ari Afilalo

Most of the Jewish and academic sources describe Judaism as the religion of Abraham, along with all its developments since that time. The life of Abraham is commonly dated to around 2000-1700 BCE. Dates in this range are the most generally delivered for when Judaism was established.

Judaism has no clear founder or founding date and the dates provided for Judaism’s origins depend largely on what one means by “Judaism.”

 

Most of the Jewish and academic sources describe Judaism as the religion of Abraham, along with all its developments since that time. The life of Abraham is commonly dated to around 2000-1700 BCE. Dates in this range are the most generally delivered for when Judaism was established.

 

Through thousands of years of difficulty, affliction, distribution, and the occasional victory, Jewish religion and culture have been extremely powerful.

 

Jewish Views On the Messiah

 

Many of the world’s religions have confidence in a future heroic figure who will protect the righteous, find the wicked, and restore peace to the world, like Krishna in Hinduism, Maitreya in Buddhism, and the Second Coming of Christianity. In Judaism, this person is the messiah, who is the Anointed One of God as foretold of in the Hebrew Bible.

 

Recognize the Messiah

 

The idea of the messiah appears to have been reported in later Judaism, although some scholars recognize early allusions. The Torah includes no special reference to him, though some Jewish scholars have noticed that it does speak of the “End of Days,” which is the time of the Messiah.

 

The Tanakh offers a lot of terms as to who the messiah will be. He will be a descendant of King David, understanding of Jewish law, a righteous judge (Jeremiah 33:15), and a prominent military leader.

 

In usual, the following passages are received by Jews as referring to the Messiah:

 

  • Isaiah 2, 11, 42; 59:20
  • Jeremiah 23, 30, 33; 48:47; 49:39
  • Ezekiel 38:16
  • Hosea 3:4-3:5
  • Micah 4
  • Zephaniah 3:9
  • Zechariah 14:9
  • Daniel 10:14

 

The Age Of Messianic

When the messiah does come, he will introduce the messianic age. The Tanakh uses the following information about this period:

  • Peace among all nations
  • Reinstatement of the Temple
  • Universal acceptance of the Jewish God and Jewish religion

Ethical Guidelines For International Trade Law-Ari Afilalo

Usually, international trade law incorporates the guidelines and traditions administering exchange between nations. International trade lawyers may concentrate on applying local laws to worldwide exchange, and apply bargain based global law overseeing trade.

Usually, international trade law incorporates the guidelines and traditions administering exchange between nations. International trade lawyers may concentrate on applying local laws to worldwide exchange, and apply bargain based global law overseeing trade.

 

Decent Guidelines For International Trade

 

The assistance of the Holy See in the international project is essential with the goal of helping the human being and improving the dignity of the person, through sharing to the common good of the entire human family.

 

In the field of industrial relations, and particularly as concerns to trade, the Holy See advocates an impartial system as one of the important constituents in development.

 

Creation Of World Trade Organization or WTO

 

In this context, the creation of the World Trade Organization (WTO) was an influential and a significant change, as it expected to perform a legal framework of international trade law in which there would be no place for illegal unilateral commercial activities.

 

It is especially poorer nations and their people groups who need an impartial, rules-based framework in which they can take part in worldwide exchange on the premise of the most elevated achievable equity of chance.

 

Fourth WTO Ministerial Meeting

 

The command of the Fourth WTO Ministerial Meeting in Doha is correctly that of giving exceptional consideration regarding the advancement needs of poor people and the WTO is to serve this order. Consequently, on the event of this Fifth WTO Ministerial Conference, which is to be a mid-term survey, the Holy See, as an Observer part, needs to propel a few reflections on the institutional connections between exchange standards and human improvement.

 

Ethical guidelines for trade

 

An ethical discernment with regards to international trade must be based upon the principle of the unavoidable estimation of the human person, the source of all human rights and every social request. The individual should dependably be an end and not a methods, a subject and not a protest, not an item of exchange. When placed at the service of human growth, the international trade system works for people – persons and groups. History shows that guaranteeing some measure of free trade of merchandise and enterprises is crucial for advancement and peace.

In order to get more information, you may read the book of a famous writer “Ari Afilalo” and update yourself with crucial facts.

 

Major barriers to international trade- Ari Afilalo

International trade is one of the most vital source of GDP for any countries. Nations from across the world generally engage in overseas trade due to the following reasons:

International trade is one of the most vital source of GDP for any countries. Nations from across the world generally engage in overseas trade due to the following reasons:

 

Distribution of natural resources in an uneven fashion

 

While there are a few nations that are naturally blessed with even distribution of a wide range of goods, elements, etc., there are many that have scanty or no existence of natural resources. And therefore, it makes international trading a necessity for them.

 

Differences in climate and environment

 

The climate and environment varies a great deal on the Earth in nature, season and surroundings. Such a variation in climate leads to growth of a wide range of crops. Therefore, international trade becomes a major necessity for a lot of nations who wish to access crops that are not grown in their type of climate.

 

Major variations in technology

 

The standard of technology is a whole lot different from place to place on Earth. Some nations are highly advanced when it comes to technology and can, therefore, manufacture a wide range of products at reduced rates. To access such products, overseas trade is highly important.

 

Variation in skills

 

People of certain nation or region can possess different type of specialized skills as they may be required specifically for the production of a certain type of products. This is another clause that necessitate the requirement of foreign trade.

 

Market expansion for different products

 

Overseas trade becomes important again when a country intends to expand its reach and visibility for its clientèle.

 

Together with a long list of factors that necessitate overseas exchange of goods and services, their are numerous barriers or problems that tend to limit international trade. Some of the most prevalent barriers to international trade are listed below:

 

Language issues

 

Different issues tend to cut back the growth of international trade. Language is just one of them. Different nationals follow different culture and language that are rarely understood by people from other countries.

 

Problem of distance

 

Distance is a major issue in international trade. It takes several days to several weeks, or even months, for a cargo to get shipped from one country to another. This time lag generally delays shipment.

 

Surplus documentation

 

Processing of international trade involves too many documents. This creates a delay in processing of international trade, making it cumbersome and lackluster for the most part. The variety of documents may include certificate of origin, ship manifest, bills of exchange, and a lot more.

 

Difference in currency

 

Different countries the world over have different sets of currencies. While processing foreign trade, these currencies must be exchanged to process some meaningful transactions. It not only delays the process but even makes it hectic.

 

About The Author

 

Ari Afilalo specializes in the business transactions and laws of international trade, elimination of non-tariff barriers to trade, cross border investments and the regulations followed internationally in that order, EU system of judicial remedies.

A Snapshot About Ari Afilalo and His Ideology About International Trade

Ari Afilalo, presently working as a professor at Rutgers Law School and is a famous individual from the Jewish people group who keeps his nearby eyes on the Sephardic Jewish people group. He is a renowned author who has tried hard to make people aware of different facts related to international trade, international business transactions, and E.U. Law.

Ari Afilalo, presently working as a professor at Rutgers Law School and is a famous individual from the Jewish people group who keeps his nearby eyes on the Sephardic Jewish people group. He is a renowned author who has tried hard to make people aware of different facts related to international trade, international business transactions, and E.U. Law.

 

Apart from this, he had worked as a legal assistant and concentrated on international commercial and intellectual property, financial transactions and so on amid his tenure. Right now, his exploration concentrates on the connection between international trade orders. He had written a book named “The New Global Trading Order”. He has tried his best to flood light on the facts related to international trade through his exceptional writing style. In addition, he has drawn an in-depth knowledge about the Sephardic community through its writings.

 

Thoughts of Ari Afilalo on International Exchange System

 

As per Afilalo, the global exchange is essential to a flourishing, as well as to world peace too. While discussing the worldwide exchange order, the huge commitment of his book, The New Global Trading Order can’t be overlooked. Among all the excellent works of Afilalo, the book is well-composed and all around contended, stirs the distinct fascination of the readers who are worried about the accompanying parts of society:

 

  • Global exchange law
  • Global financial matters
  • History
  • The issues of globalization

 

International Trade and the Business Landscape

 

International trade is in incredible pattern these days and encounters a quick increment because of the progression in present day satellite and Internet advancements. Better network and normal look for minimal effort work have caused the smaller scale multinationals to accomplish upper hand.

 

The development is energized by international trade that enables organizations of all sizes to exploit worldwide open doors, to additionally reinforcing the economy. Research regarding the matter has demonstrated that trust in abroad open doors is expanding among smaller scale multinationals as it gives them a more noteworthy favorable position over single market small-to-medium-sized ventures (SMEs).

 

The open doors for these small scale multinationals are profitable, as they are regularly speedier to present than contenders, and are better ready to receive new innovation. They commonly concentrate on their esteem suggestions around an item or competency in which they have a specific authority ability to keep their client cheerful.

Major advantages of international trade- Ari Afilalo

International trade is more or less similar to domestic trade. The only difference is that international trade crosses different geographical boundaries. International trading is a secure way to boost the GDP of a nation quickly. However, international trading is no longer a novelty.

International trade is more or less similar to domestic trade. The only difference is that international trade crosses different geographical boundaries. International trading is a secure way to boost the GDP of a nation quickly. However, international trading is no longer a novelty. Countries have been exchanging goods and services ever since we identified different ways to move across the borders. But then, the manner in which international trading is being executed these days is highly lucrative and complex than it had ever been. Globalization, industrialization, and formation of numerous multi-national companies have drastically transformed the way different nations interact and do business with each other.    

 

Benefits of international trade
International trade is also quite significant for most of us today. How about a scenario where you can only have access to goods and services that are produced locally? That will be so restraining and lackluster. Without products and services coming in from other nations, we would have been so confined and, as a matter of fact, so much against the growth principle of mankind.   

 

International trading includes heavy costs since governments tend to impose various types of costs on top of the actual price of a product or service coming in from a different company. Such additional costs may include time costs, tariffs and numerous other type of charges involved when exchanging goods and services from a nation having a different set of rules, culture, system and language.

 

China at the forefront of international trade
One of the most dominating force on the international trading front is China where labor is available in abundance and at really cheap prices. Numerous labor-intensive products manufactured in the US and the majority of European nations are assembled in China since the country has access to cheap labor. In this manner, the country originally manufacturing the product can cut out a lot of time, money and effort. In addition, such international trading activities helps provide good income opportunities to the people of China, thence facilitating better living for them.  

 

While international trade helps a nation raise diverse income opportunities for the local individuals, exporting or importing anything in a surplus amount can actually hurt the local scene. During recession times, countries face tremendous amount of pressure to draw the government into making amendments in international trade laws to safeguard local industries.    

 

The role of World Trade Organization
While each country has certain laws and bylaws in place through which it manages its international trade operations, the entire trading scene on the global level is executed and monitored through the World Trade Organization.

 

The WTO makes sure their is mutually rewarding and peaceful business atmosphere. Trading between two nations can often cause unnecessary rifts between the two parties involved and in case the issues are left unsettled it can lead to severe problems on the international level. In case such issues are voiced or detected, the WTO takes hold of the problem through debates, general talks to identify various possible ways to resolve the international trading problems. In most cases, the WTO draws the parties involved in the issue into signing a bilateral or multilateral agreement.   

 

The major advantage of this international trade goes to the small- and mid-sized industries that have great products and services to offer. And therefore, you can surely ride high on success in international trading front if you hit the right areas.

 

About the author
Ari Afilalo is an expert at international trade. A professor of international trade, Ari is highly popular aongst his students. He has also authored a revolutionary book on international trade that can actually act as a Bible for anyone looking to get detailed insights into international trading.

Legal Aspects Of International Trade Law -Ari Afilalo

International trade is a complicated area of law to research since there are a lot of levels of trade organizations and communications. There are mutual trade agreements, regional trade agreements and multinational trade agreements.

International trade is a complicated area of law to research since there are a lot of levels of trade organizations and communications. There are mutual trade agreements, regional trade agreements and multinational trade agreements. Each of these agreements has its certain policies, dispute and history settlement processes.

 

Trade organizations established under the agreements have separate resources that can be looked. Moreover, different countries have their particular policies and laws relating to international trade.

 

For example, the United States Of America must pass legislation establishing international trade agreements before the United States can officially become a party.

 

Ari Afilalo has stated a lot of imperative factors that give you a better knowledge of various legal aspects of international laws.

 

FITT skills Legal Aspects of International Trade (LAIT) acquaints the crowd with the perplexing universal lawful structure that empowers people, organizations and governments to effectively and legitimately trade products and ventures crosswise over fringes. Through participation between private ventures and intergovernmental associations, the worldwide group has officially brought down exchange hindrances around the globe. The work of orchestrating the lawful systems and exchange plans of individual countries through settlements, traditions, understandings, demonstrate laws and successful techniques for question determination proceeds.

 

LAIT traces the ideas and sources of public and private international law. It talks about the universal associations, for example, the United Nations and the World Trade Organization, whose work has empowered created nations to extend their exchange plans decently and has brought forming nations into worldwide exchange. LAIT likewise clarifies the effect universal traditions, for example, the Vienna Sales Convention and territorial exchange assertions, for example, NAFTA have on the stream of business between nations.

 

It elucidates the impact of national enactment, controls and court frameworks on national and global business, and depicts how enactment adds to the market claim a country will have for universal brokers. Rising legitimate, moral and mechanical difficulties the worldwide group will confront as the pattern towards globalization of exchange proceeds are additionally presented.

A sneak peek at international trade and economic development

International trade is no novelty, it is a fairly known topic as different countries across the globe have certain set of trade laws and general regulations. Ari Afilalo is a specialist of international trade and economic development, he has highly publicized his deep insights into the topic.

International trade is no novelty, it is a fairly known topic as different countries across the globe have certain set of trade laws and general regulations. Ari Afilalo is a specialist of international trade and economic development, he has highly publicized his deep insights into the topic. The training and research of Ari Afilalo is based on the following.

 

  • Different International business transactions
  • European Union laws
  • International trade or business

 

 The good past has a huge number of instances of international trade and economic development. Back in the 14th as well as the 15th century, a large number of traders operated around the world to transport silk and spices. From the mainland China to different European nations, fast sailing and unbelievably huge ship vessels transported tea from one part of the world to another even in the 17th century. Considering all this we can ascertain that foreign trade has had a major impact on the economic development of the global trading nations.

 

Difference of opinions

 

For foreign trade as well as economic development, it is clear that all leading nations around the world are involved in import and export of major agricultural products as well as capital goods. Their business is on the upper tier of international business, thereby making massive profits and playing crucial role in the development of the nations.

 

Earning from foreign exchanges

 

In order to curb poverty, Foreign trade offers immense assistance, along with bringing numerous productive benefits.

 

Market expansion

 

International trade is also creditworthy for the increase in production of a nation. Foreign trade is one of the major reasons behind the surplus market expansion across different developing nations. Different nations with scanty or less productive markets eye foreign nations to gain wealth and capital interests.

 

For maximizing investments

 

Foreign trade continually inspires businesses around the world to grow and make rich investments for producing more and more goods, thereby increasing the overall investment ratio.

 

A strong member and promoter of the Sephardic community, Afilalo has penned a revolutionary book on international trade laws which provides a detailed insights into all major economic factors affecting international trade.

 

Get To Know About Ashkenazic and Sephardic Jews

When we talk about Ashkenazic and Sephardic Jews, they basically represent two distinct subcultures of Judaism. There is no denying the fact that they share the same basic beliefs. But. there exists some difference in culture as well as practice. Ari Afilalo is the one who kept close eyes on an existence of Ashkenazic and Sephardic Jews.

Ari Afilalo With His Exceptional Work

When we talk about Ashkenazic and Sephardic Jews, they basically represent two distinct subcultures of Judaism. There is no denying the fact that they share the same basic beliefs. But. there exists some difference in culture as well as practice. Ari Afilalo is the one who kept close eyes on an existence of Ashkenazic and Sephardic Jews.

 

Things To Know About Ashkenazic Jews?

All the jews living in countries like France, Germany, and Eastern Europe are knows as

Ashkenazic Jews. The term Ashkenazi is derived from the Hebrew word “Ashkenaz,” which is used to refer to Germany. A number of American Jews are Ashkenazim, descended from Jews. It is said that these jews emigrated from countries like Germany and Eastern Europe from the mid 1800s to the early 1900s.

 

An Overview of Sephardic Jews?

The term Sephardic came into existence from the Hebrew word “Sepharad,” which highly refers to Spain. These jews are an inhabitant of countries like Spain, Portugal, North Africa and the Middle East . These Sephardic Jews are basically divided into  Sephardim, including:

 

  • From Spain and Portugal
  • Mizrahim
  • From the Northern Africa and the Middle East

 

What You Need To Know About Mizrachi

The Hebrew word used for Eastern is known as Mizrachi. Between the Sephardim and Mizrahim, there can be seen a huge overlap. If we turn back to the 1400s, it was only Muslim community who has control on Iberian Peninsula, North Africa and the Middle Eastern people. They give Jews permission to roam freely throughout the region.
Under their rule, Jewish people flourished a lot. A remarkable development was noticed in several areas. In the year 1492, many of the jews were expelled from Spain. In a nutshell, this blog throws a flood of light on the major life events of Ashkenazic and Sephardic Jews.  

Legal Aspects Of International Trade Law

International trade is a complicated area of law to research since there are a lot of levels of trade organizations and communications. There are mutual trade agreements, regional trade agreements and multinational trade agreements.

International trade is a complicated area of law to research since there are a lot of levels of trade organizations and communications. There are mutual trade agreements, regional trade agreements and multinational trade agreements. Each of these agreements has its certain policies, dispute and history settlement processes.

 

Trade organizations established under the agreements have separate resources that can be looked. Moreover, different countries have their particular policies and laws relating to international trade.

 

For example, the United States Of America must pass legislation establishing international trade agreements before the United States can officially become a party.

 

Ari Afilalo has stated a lot of imperative factors that give you a better knowledge of various legal aspects of international laws.

 

FITT skills Legal Aspects of International Trade (LAIT) acquaints the crowd with the perplexing universal lawful structure that empowers people, organizations and governments to effectively and legitimately trade products and ventures crosswise over fringes. Through participation between private ventures and intergovernmental associations, the worldwide group has officially brought down exchange hindrances around the globe. The work of orchestrating the lawful systems and exchange plans of individual countries through settlements, traditions, understandings, demonstrate laws and successful techniques for question determination proceeds.

 

LAIT traces the ideas and sources of public and private international law. It talks about the universal associations, for example, the United Nations and the World Trade Organization, whose work has empowered created nations to extend their exchange plans decently and has brought forming nations into worldwide exchange. LAIT likewise clarifies the effect universal traditions, for example, the Vienna Sales Convention and territorial exchange assertions, for example, NAFTA have on the stream of business between nations.
It elucidates the impact of national enactment, controls and court frameworks on national and global business, and depicts how enactment adds to the market claim a country will have for universal brokers. Rising legitimate, moral and mechanical difficulties the worldwide group will confront as the pattern towards globalization of exchange proceeds are additionally presented.

French Jews Here Relieved — And Concerned

Though Le Pen likely to lose in run-off, extremist parties did well.

 

On Saturday, French Jews of New York City voted in their homeland’s presidential election — mostly against Marine Le Pen, the far-right nationalist candidate.

 

On Sunday, they and the great majority of France’s 500,000 Jews expressed a measure of relief as the centrist candidate, political novice Emmanuel Macron, came in first in the initial round of the national vote. But the far-right National Front’s Marine Le Pen finished second, forcing a run-off election on May 7, since neither candidate reached the 50 percent threshold.

 

The National Front has a long association with anti-Semitism and xenophobia, beginning with its founder, LePen’s father, Jean-Marie Le Pen. She has tried to distance herself from that aura, even banishing her father from the party he launched in 1972. But her recent comment, denying the French role in the most infamous round-up of French Jews during World War II — 13,000 men, women and children were arrested by the police during two days in July 1942 — renewed worries that she remains her father’s daughter.

 

French Jews say they are confident Le Pen will lose, given that politicians from the moderate left and right are rallying around Macron. But there is real concern for the future of French Jewry, no matter who becomes the country’s next president. Together, the extremist parties accounted for about 40 percent of the vote, and anti-Semitism remains a serious issue.

 

“We have a small sigh of relief — we don’t have the extremists in the final round” of voting, said Simone Rodan Benzaquen, Paris-based director of the American Jewish Committee’s European division.

 

While Le Pen is leader of a nationalistic party, “she’s certainly not her father, she’s certainly not the party her father founded,” Benzaquen said in a telephone interview, referring to Jean-Marie Le Pen.

 

Francis Kalifat, president of France’s umbrella CRIF Jewish organization, said most French Jews felt both “satisfaction and concern” after Sunday’s results.

 

Kalifat, who has called Le Pen a “candidate of hate,” said he was “worried to see National Front making it to the main event of French democracy.”

 

Le Pen, who succeeded her father as leader of the party in 2011, has run on a platform of slashing immigration, closing “extremist” mosques, imposing limitations on religious freedoms, banning halal and some forms of ritual slaughter, reducing free trade and pulling out of the European Union. She took a leave of absence this week from leadership of the party – it was not clear if her action was temporary or permanent – in an apparent move to disassociate herself from some of National Front’s more strident actions.

 

French Jews here and in France said in interviews this week that the growing support for Le Pen, who received 21 percent of the vote this week, and the electoral showing of candidates from far-right and far-left parties, casts doubts on the viability of France’s Jewish community. It has been the victim in recent decades of a series of attacks by France’s growing number of Muslims with roots in northern Africa.

 

The political strength of extremist candidates in France “reflects trends in French society that are disturbing,” said Rabbi Eitan Bendavid, spiritual leader of the West Side Sephardic Synagogue, a congregation where many of the estimated several hundred French Jewish families in New York City are members.

 

Macron, Rabbi Bendavid said, is viewed by the French Jewish community as “friendly towards Israel and the Jews.”

 

Macron’s win brought “a combination of relief and anxiety,” said Ari Afilalo, a native of Paris who moved to the United States three decades ago. An associate law professor at Rutgers University, he returns frequently to France to visit relatives there. “We don’t have to pack our bags and leave.”

 

But French Jews are “frightened … we’re being squeezed” by nationalists and Islamists, both of whom would restrict Jewish rights and endanger Jewish safety, Afilalo said.

 

Click Here To Read Full Article-: http://jewishweek.timesofisrael.com/french-jews-here-relieved-and-concerned/

Understanding The Sephardi-Ashkenazi Split- Ari Afilao

The third rail of Jewish governmental issues is not the Palestine address or even the concern of mainstream against religious that has so isolated Jews in Israel and the Disapora. No, covered somewhere inside the petulant issue of Jewish character is the primordial part between European Jews, Ashkenazim, and Jews of the Arab-Muslim world, Sephardim.

The third rail of Jewish governmental issues is not the Palestine address or even the concern of mainstream against religious that has so isolated Jews in Israel and the Disapora. No, covered somewhere inside the petulant issue of Jewish character is the primordial part between European Jews, Ashkenazim, and Jews of the Arab-Muslim world, Sephardim.

 

For all the fractiousness and infighting that always happens in the Jewish world, most by far of those whose voices are heard so uproariously and regularly piercingly in the discussion are joined by their culture, a history that starts and closures in the Shtetls of Europe.

 

While perusing James Picciotto’s 1865 book Sketches of Anglo-Jewish History, I ran over an extremely normal plan of the issue that was enunciated when Sephardim were not yet a non-substance on the Jewish stage, as they are today.

 

While perusing James Picciotto’s 1865 book Sketches of Anglo-Jewish History, people usually ran over an extremely normal plan of the issue that was enunciated when Sephardim were not yet a non-substance on the Jewish stage, as they are today.

 

Somewhat later in the book, Picciotto, himself the scion of a main Sephardic family that was conspicuous in Euro-Mediterranean circles as ambassadors and lenders, relates what was in the late eighteenth century still an ordinary truth: the downgrade of a Sephardi from group initiative for wedding an Ashkenazi.

 

Sephardim considered themselves to be Jewish respectability. Glancing back at the tremendous region of Jewish history, the Jews of the Middle East and Mediterranean world had experienced a procedure of cultural assimilation that extended from the most punctual stay in the Babylonian Diaspora, the home of the immense Talmudic foundations, to the high-water sign of Sepharad/Al-Andalus: the “Brilliant Age or golden age” of Spanish development under the Arab ‘Umayyad caliphate.

 

The contrasts amongst Sephardim and Ashkenazim are not constrained to geology. In the Middle Ages the gorge between the Arab-Muslim world and Christian Europe was boundless. After the fall of the Roman Empire and the ascent of an Islamic one, Arab human progress was urbane, complex, and profoundly learned. The very establishment of the Sephardic Jewish culture was the scholarly amalgamation of religion and science that can best be called “Religious Humanism.”

 

Ari Afilalo is a creative writer who has published a book on the various concerns and topic. If you want to know more information regarding Sephardic Jews culture you may read his book.

A Brief Insight Into The General Agreement On Tariff And Trade

The General Agreement on Tariff and Trade was a treaty derived to improve the international trade by lowering the tariffs imposed on trade and reduce subsidies while upholding the significant regulations.

 

It was formed after the end of World War II. It was made law after twenty three countries signed the agreement on January 1, 1948. It came into effect on June 30, 1948.

 

Over the next two decades, there were many changes that were made in GATT agreement and the number of member countries increased to 123 countries, which lead to the creation of world trade organization on January 1, 1995.

 

Purpose:
The main purpose of the General Agreement on Tariff and Trade was to eradicate the import barriers that had led to the decline of trade to about sixty five per cent of what it used to be originally, during the time of the great depression.

 

By eliminating the imposed tariffs, trade was promoted on a global level and economic health was restored internationally finally.

 

Agreement:
Each member nation was to treat the other nations on an equal basis when it came to impose tariffs, without showing favor to any one nation.

 

However, if the tariff caused serious consequences to the domestic producers, then special tariffs could be imposed on the members of the British Commonwealth.

 

Restrictions:
There were restrictions imposed on the number of exports and imports done by a member nation. The exceptions were applied on:

 

A surplus of agricultural products
Manage the balance of payments when FX Reserves are low
Protection of the emerging industries from the negative impact of excess import

 

Ari Afilalo is a law professor, an author and a researcher who has closely studied the relationship between the State affairs and the International Trade. His book “The New Global Trading Order: The Evolving State And The Future Of Trade” focuses on the International Business Transactions, Trade Law and European Union Law.

A Glimpse Of The Most Important Facts About Latino Jews

Ari Afilalo is an expert who has in depth knowledge about Sephardic community. The writings of afilalo give us a unique piece of information about Sephardic community.

Latino Jews

 

Ari Afilalo And His Exceptional Work

Ari Afilalo is an expert who has in depth knowledge about Sephardic community. The writings of afilalo give us a unique piece of information about Sephardic community.  Latino Jews are given different names such as:

  • Sephardic Jews
  • Spanish Jews
  • Arab Jews

Basic Identity Of Latino Jews

They are basically the descendants of people who practiced the Jewish religion in Iberia, but now the following regions:

  • Spain
  • Portugal
  • North Africa

Religious Practice Of Hispanics

Without knowing the Jewish traditions, they used to practice it. In New Mexico, a Jewish association identifies the following practices that were disconnected from any consciousness of a Jewish past:

  • To lighten the candles on Friday night
  • To observe the Sabbath on Saturday
  • Not to eat pork

Thus, the Sephardic heritage in one of the most enriching ones in the world with roots from the old times. The more a person learns about it, the more fascinating it seems to be and leaves the person asking for more.

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Sephardic Jews: Christian Rule And Expulsion Of 1492

Sephardim or sephardic jews is the term used for the Jews who were expelled from Spain in 1492. Now this term is used commonly for the Jewish exiles and their descendants who settled all around the globe. The descendants of the exiled Sephardics are now living in the countries along the Mediterranean Sea, Syria, the Balkans, Palestine, North Africa, Brazil, New Amsterdam, Holland, and Mexico.

 

The language spoken by Sephardic Jews is Ladino, a language created from the mixture of Hebrew and Spanish language. Anti Jewish riots in 1391 started in many cities of Spain and the condition of Jews went from bad to worse during that time. Newly transformed Christians were brutally tortured and maimed in the Spanish Inquisition.

 

It was thought that if the Jews remained in Spain, they could be influenced to convert into Christianity. After Granada got arrested, Father Torquemada persuaded the reigning king Ferdinand that the Jews in the Spain were expendable. In 1492, the Jewish community was ordered to convert their religion to Christianity.

 

The ones who refused were expelled from the Spain. Within four months the Jews were ordered to sell their property and leave the country. The day they got expelled is still remembered by Jews as Tisha B’Av holiday. Portugal allowed the settlement of Jews but later in 1497, they were expelled again. The daughter of Spain’s monarchs and King of Portugal married with the condition that the Jewish community would be expelled.

 

The ones who converted to Christianity were allowed to stay in Portugal. A large community of expelled Jews settled in the Ottoman Empire and North Africa. The Jews that moved to Holland from Portugal were allowed to practice Judaism. They were commonly referred as Marrano diaspora. Marranos settled in Western Europe and America. Today the descendents of that diaspora live in Colorado and New Mexico.

 

Ari Afilalo is a member of Sephardic Synagogue in the west New York. He is also a part of the French Moroccan Community.

How International Trade Can Help A Business Flourish- Ari Afilalo

For any business that wants to increase its customer traffic and boost profit margins, international trade can be extremely lucrative. The emergence of international trade crosses geographical boundaries and helps in earning more traffic to the business, thus making it recognizable.

For any business that wants to increase its customer traffic and boost profit margins, international trade can be extremely lucrative. The emergence of international trade crosses geographical boundaries and helps in earning more traffic to the business, thus making it recognizable.

 

Nowadays, the business that does not engage in international trade is left behind and slowly diminishes the list. By enrolling your business in the international trade, you can take advantage of the expertise of many different nations and work on its shortcomings to improve its standards.

 

Before making entry into the international trade, you should have a thorough knowledge of international trade and economic laws of your country as well as the country you are going to trade with.

 

How International Trade and Economic Laws are Interdependable

 

The international trade and economic laws manage the different areas of the international trade and are equally important. International trade laws comprise the appropriate rules and customs that are required to handle the trade between countries whereas international economic laws include the synchronization and management of states, private enterprises and international organizations operating in the international economic arena.

 

If looking forward to an international trade, you should look for a good consulting company to have an elaborate knowledge about the terms and practice business overseas without any difficulty.

 

Ari Afilalo expertise in the areas of the business transactions, contracts and the international trade. Rutgers Law School professor Ari Afilalo maintained active bar membership and had a transactional practice during his tenure in New York City.

 

With a J.D. from Boston University School of Law and LL.M.from Harvard Law School, he research on different subjects involving cross-border transactions, judicial remedies in the EU system and the treatment of intellectual property in free trade areas.

An Overview Of International Trade And Economic Development

Ar Afilalo is an expert who threw a flood of right on the role of international trade in economic development.

All of us are aware with the concept of International trade as it is not a new among different countries across the world. Ar Afilalo is an expert who threw a flood of right on the role of international trade in economic development. The research and training of Afilalo are based on the following methods such as:

  •   International trade or business
  •   Different International business transactions
  •   European Union laws

If you review the past, then you will notice a number of instances of international trade. As talking about the 14th and the 15th century, there were a number of traders who were involved in transporting silk as well as spices. From China to various European countries, the fast sailing ships transported tea in the 1700s. In this way, we can assert that the foreign trade has a huge impact on the economical development of a country.

Different Faces To Judge The Role of foreign trade

 

  • Foreign trade and economic development

 

There is no denying the fact that all the countries are involved in exporting a lot of agricultural product to other countries and import capital goods as well. Thus, they do business on an international level to get a big profit. In this way, the economic development of a country highly depends on foreign trade.

  • Foreign exchange earning

 

In order to remove poverty, including the various productive benefits, Foreign trade offers foreign exchange.

  • Market expansion

 

The increasing production of a country gives credit to International trade. One of the remarkable factor in expanding the market is the foreign trade, motivating the producers as well. Different countries with less home market focus on selling their products in other countries.

  • To maximize the investment

 

The major role played by Foreign trade is to encourage the businessmen for maximizing the investment to produce more goods. Thus, the rate of investment increases.

A proud member of the Sephardic Jewish community, Afilalo is a  celebrated author of the book the new global trading order as well.

Benefits Of International Trade In An Economy

Being an expert about International Trade procedures, the renowned author Ari Afilalo seems to be concerned with all aspects of international trade.

Being an expert about International Trade procedures, the renowned author Ari Afilalo seems to be concerned with all aspects of international trade. His wonderful writings throw a flood of light on how the growth of a nation highly depends on its trade system. When we talk about international trade, it has flourished a lot over the years.

Not only this, it has offered numerous benefits to various countries across the globe. An exchange of goods, services, and capital among different countries and regions is what international trade is all about. International trade benefits an economy by:

  • Helping to enhance the domestic competitiveness.

  • Taking advantage of international trade technology.

  • Increasing sales as well as profits.

  • Helping to extend sales potential of existing products.

  • Maintaining cost competitiveness in your domestic market.

  • Gaining global market share.

  • Minimizing dependency on an existing market.

The concept of international trade is not a new one for all of us. International trade accounts for a good part of many developing countries’ revenue, positively affecting their gross domestic product. International trade is growing at a rapid pace due to some of the following reasons:

  • Use of modern production techniques

  • Highly advanced transportation systems

  • Multinational corporations

  • Outsourcing of manufacturing and services

  • Industrialization

International trade doesn’t only affect our economy; the political and social aspects of our society also get influenced by even minimal changes in our trading system. In the industrial age, the significance of international trade has been consistently examined.

In the growth of globalization, the rise in international trade plays a very essential role. If we restrict international trade, nations would be limited to exchanging services and goods produced only within their own boundaries. Thus, there would be no opportunities for valuable revenue from global trade sources.

History speaks for itself in that the nations with the strongest international trade practices have become prosperous and have the power to control the world economy. And, it is a fact that global trade can become one of the major contributors to the reduction of poverty.

ARI AFILALO – NAFTA HISTORY AND ITS ORIGIN

NAFTA is a the North American Free Trade Agreement that came into effect in the year 1994. The purpose of this agreement was to create the biggest free trade zone for North America, Canada and Mexico. This was to develop a strong economic base and it exhibited competitiveness in delivering positive results among the manufacturers, farmers, consumers and workers in these countries. Following is the overview of the history of the NAFTA agreement:

  • This agreement was put into effect on January 1, 1994 and was signed by the leaders of three countries mexico, the U.S., and Canada.
  • This agreement was created after the success of the free trade agreement done by Canada and U.S.
  • The world’s largest free trade area was formed with NAFTA agreement coming into effect.
  • The NAFTA has been exemplary as the first Free Trade Agreement of its type and has proven the advantages of the trade liberalization for rest of the world to follow.
  • The legal tribunal of the NAFTA allows the cross border investors to seek settlement of disputes through a proper channel and the NAFTA has been the first body to provide such channel of clear set of regulations.

Ari Afilalo is a law professor and researches on various law matters including the European Union, the International Trade Law, and NAFTA.

Role of International Trade in Economic Development- Ari Afilalo

International trade is not a new concept among different countries. In the past there were several noticeable instances of international trade.

International trade is not a new concept among different countries. In the past there were several noticeable instances of international trade. In 14th and 15th century traders used to transport silk and spices through silk route. In the 1700s fast sailing ships used to transport tea from China to different European countries. Foreign trade also has a big impact on economic development.

 

Role of foreign trade in economic development

The role of foreign trade can be judged by the following faces:

Foreign trade and economic development

All the countries export a lot of agricultural product to other countries and import capital goods. Hence, it the economic development of a country highly depends of foreign trade.

Foreign exchange earning

Foreign trade provides foreign exchange that is used to remove the poverty and for other productive purposes.

Market expansion

International trade plays an important role in increasing the production of any country. The foreign trade is remarkable factor in expanding the market and encouraging the producers. In countries where home market is limited it is necessary to sell product in other countries.

Increase in investment

Foreign trade encourages the businessmen to increase the investment to produce more goods. So the rate of investment increases.

Foreign investment

Foreign trade provides incentives for the foreign investors, besides local investment, to invest in those countries where there is a shortage of investment.

The significance of international trade on economic, political, and social conditions has been theorized in the Industrial Age also. It is essential for the growth of globalization.

Ari Afilalo, an expert professor and researcher on international trade, has a strong insight over this method. His research and training are based on methods like:

  •    International trade
  •    International business transactions
  •    European Union laws

He is also a proud and responsible member of the Sephardic Jewish community. He is a celebrated author of the book the new global trading order

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Important Facts About Golden Age Of The Jews With Ari Afilalo

Islamic Spain was a blend of several cultures. Basically, it is a mix of the people of three major monotheistic religions such as Jews, Muslims and Christians.

Islamic Spain was a blend of several cultures. Basically, it is a mix of the people of three major monotheistic religions such as Jews, Muslims and Christians.

The golden age of Jewish culture in Spain matched with the Middle Ages in Europe, a period of Muslim rule completely much of the Iberian Peninsula. The era of Muslim rule in Spain (8th-11th century) was recognized as the “Golden Age” for Spanish Jewry. During cyclic periods of time, Jews were commonly accepted in society and Jews religious, cultural, and financial life bloomed.

While Christians and Jews lived under limitations, for much of the time the three groups arranged to get along together, and to some degree, to help from the presence of each other.

Jewish mental and religious life increased and numerous Jews served in Spanish courts. Jewish economic development was unique. In Toledo, Jews were included in translating Arabic texts in the romance languages, along with translating Greek and Hebrew texts into Arabic. Jews also devoted to the following fields:

  • Poetry
  • Philosophy
  • Medicine
  • Botany
  • Geography and
  • Mathematics

Major Figure

In 711 Muslim forces attacked and in 7 years succeeded the Iberian peninsula.It became one of the prominent Muslim civilisations which touching its peak with the Umayyad caliphate of Cordova In the 10th century. Muslim rule decreased after that and ended in 1492 when Granada was won.The heartland of Muslim rule was Southern Spain or Andalusia.

Significant Years

Muslim Spain was not a particular period, but a sequence of various rules.

  • The Dependent Emirate (711-756)
  • The Independent Emirate (756-929)
  • The Caliphate (929-1031)
  • The Almoravid Era (1031-1130)
  • Decline (1130-1492)

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H’emsha

Fatima’s eyes glowed with terror as she ran to Maurice, who had just arrived at his fruit and vegetable store in downtown Algiers. “They killed Mr. Malek! They killed Mr. Malek!” she cried. Maurice knew that “they” were agents from the FLN, the Muslim National Liberation Front which fought to oust the French from Algeria and violently harassed French sold­iers and civilians. Mr. Malek was a Jewish “pied noir,” or “black foot,” as the French in France had nicknamed the French who grew up in Al­geria, which had been a French colony for one hundred and thirty-two years.

Maurice was immensely sad as he tried to calm Fatima, the most popular cleaning lady of the predominantly Jewish mercantile neighborhood. He was not concerned with the Algerian War. He had grown up in Mar­rakesh, Morocco and, like most Jewish boys whose father owned a store, he had entered his family’s business right after high school. Life had been sweet in the Moroccan Atlas mountains. Maurice’s family had made a comfortable living selling fruit and vegetables to the French army. Maurice, a dark and handsome man, had often had little roles in the various movies that were being shot around Marrakesh. When Suzanne met him, at piano lessons, they immediately fell in love.

Maurice’s family lived in the Gheliz, or European neighborhood, but Suzanne Ouazana’s family lived in the Melah’, or Jewish ghetto. Her father, Rabbi Eliezer, was a head of the Jewish community: his name inspired respect and awe among both the Jews and Muslims of Marrakesh. He was the last in a line of rabbis who had acquired a reputation for wis­dom and for deep knowledge of both the natural and the mystical laws that rule the world. Old Jews and Muslims could tell you the story of Rabbi Eliezer’s grandfather, who was such a holy man that Elijah the Prophet himself would spend days studying the Talmud with him in one of the numerous caves of the Atlas mountains. In the mornings of those days of study, a lion and a snake would wait for Rabbi Eliezer’s grandfather. He would travel from Marrakesh into the mountains’ heights, riding the lion and holding the snake as a rein.

Rabbi Eliezer’s wisdom equalled his ancestor’s reputation. People from Marrakesh and the neighboring villages came to ask for advice or blessings, or to bring complaints. His house was open to all who needed shelter or food. Because of the awe inspired by his name his decisions were taken as laws, and he used this power to promote the welfare of the community. Everyone in Marrakesh could tell you how he brought a smile back to the faces of many young women who were battered by their drunken husbands. Rabbi Eliezer had simply rationed down wine to the minimal amount necessary for the sanctification of the Sabbath. No one dared to show disrespect for this decision.

When Maurice married Suzanne, all of Marrakesh partied for several days, according to the custom in Oriental Jewish communities. Suzanne and Maurice lived happily in Marrakesh for a few more years until 1956, the year that Morocco, which had long been a French Protectorate, became independent. The departure of the French left the Jews uncertain as to the attitude the new, independent Muslim kingdom would adopt toward them. Many Jews had already left for the newly-created State of Israel. The very existence of the Jewish state and its conflict with the Arab nations had made relations between Jews and Muslims difficult. There was a widespread rumor of pogroms among the Jewish communities. Cases of arbitrary imprisonment and beatings of Jews by the independent government had been reported. The richest Jews, who had connections with the king, chose to stay in Morocco. The poorest Jews chose to leave for Israel, where the government promised financial aid. Other wealthy Jews went to Canada, and the middling ones to France. Maurice was loathe to leave North Africa, whose culture he found familiar and comfortable, so he and Suzanne followed the French army to Algiers, where it was still in power and needed Maurice’s fruits and vegetables. The day that Fatima announced the murder of Mr. Malek, Maurice had been in Algiers for six years. As he drove to Mr. Malek’s house, expect­ing to find Mrs. Malek and her son in tears, he wondered whether it was not time to leave the turmoil forever. Maurice felt alien to the conflict between Algerian Muslims and French Christians. On the one hand, he spoke perfect Arabic. The Muslim customs and hospitality in Algiers reminded him of his native Marrakesh. But on the other hand, having attended a French high school in Morocco and done business with the French for so many years, he also identified with them. If Mr. Malek, who was also a merchant and uninvolved in the war, had been shot, what would keep the FLN agents from shooting him? Maurice certainly felt neutral, but wasn’t he feeding the whole French army in Algiers?

To Maurice’s surprise, Mrs. Malek was not crying but quietly knitting in the living room when Maurice entered the Maleks’ house.   Through the door of the kitchen, he could see Mr. Malek sitting with coffee and reading the newspaper. Mr. Malek saw the expression on Maurice’s face and gestured to him to enter the kitchen. No, he had not been shot. Yes, he had been very lucky. He had sold the store to a Frenchman from Marseilles who had taken possession of it that very morning and had been shot in Mr. Malek’ s stead. No, his wife did not know. Yes, he would leave the day after. “Be careful, Maurice,” he said as they hugged good­ bye. “Leave as soon as you can.”

But Maurice and his wife, who taught French in an Arab high school, stayed. That year, 1962, the Algerians finally won their fight and obtained independence. Maurice knew some Muslims who were now highly placed in the independent government and started selling fruits and vegetables to the newly-created Algerian army. But the new government was suspicious of people who had had any connection with the French, and in 1964 Maurice was warned by his friends that his past was being investigated by the government.

One day his truck was stolen and he went to complain at the police station. Looking at the man sitting behind the desk, Maurice recognized Brahim, formerly a low ranking member of the FLN who came to the mer­chants to raise funds for the movement. When Brahim, now chief of the police station in the commercial neighborhood, saw Maurice he started laughing hysterically. “God must love you, Maurice,” he said. “God must love you.” Brahim rose, walked to a file cabinet, and opened the drawer marked “FLN Files.” He pulled out a folder containing a list of names: the people the FLN planned to kill in the years preceding indepen­dence and the date planned for each assassination. On 13 March 1962, right under Mr. Malek’s name, there was Maurice’s name! He had been driving to Mr. Malek’ s house at the very moment he was supposed to have been shot.

Maurice took this incident as a sign from God that he should leave Algeria. A week later, he and Suzanne landed in a cold, gray city called Paris. A few months later, they found out that Suzanne was pregnant. One year after Maurice and Suzanne arrived in Paris, I was born.

The first time I struggled with my own identity was when, as a seven­ year-old boy, I watched an international soccer game involving the French national team. As the excited commentator cheered the French team with his famous “Go small ones,” I wondered whether I could follow the urging of my heart to identify with the struggle of the “small ones.” Almost everything in my daily life reminded me that I was not a real “pur Gaulois Frenchman,” as they were called, but the son of Moroccan Jewish parents.

At the French public high school I attended, the North Africans had been nicknamed “Beurs,” which is the word “Arab” in the popular Parisian jargon which reverses the syllables of regular French words. The Oriental customs and the Mediterranean mentality which prevailed in my house made me feel much closer to the Beurs than to the French whose culture was so different from mine.

The French firmly believed in rationality and science. I too believed in science, but I did not despise more mystical explanations of the world as the French did. Like most Beurs, I had heard at home about the “evil eye.” One who was successful and boastful about his success was likely to attract it. There were a few ways to avoid the evil eye, such as wearing a necklace with an open hand, symbolizing the number five, “h’emsha” in Arabic, which was supposed to offer protection. Hanging a porcelain fish over a doorway could also work. My parents and I half-believed in the evil eye. But whether it existed or not, the evil eye was a subject one could discuss only with Beurs and other North African Jews, or “Feujs’ as we were called. The French would dismiss any such discussion with disdain.

My conception of the family was much closer to the Beur view than to the typical French view. The French were more individualistic than we were. Most of them called their parents “old folks” and did not hesitate to talk about their elders in derogatory terms when they disagreed with them. I shared with the Beurs an idea of the family as one entity whose members are as close and dependent on each other as the five fingers of a hand — h’emsha. In my culture, as in the Beurs’, parents had to be respected no matter what they did or thought, or what their children did or thought. Parents carried the wisdom of the ages.

More than once, I almost wept at the sight of the Muslim mothers, wearing the traditional dress and purple make-up, waiting for their children after school. Even the Beurs who were hooligans at school would tenderly help their mothers find their way through the puddles of the Parisian winter. My parents always dressed like Europeans and so I did not have to feel the embarrassment of the young Muslim children, who had to face the incredulous and sometimes mocking glances of their French coun­terparts for whom the traditional Arab dresses looked backward. I did not need to feel this shame, but still I did. I wanted to cry because I felt so close to the Muslim Beurs.

Once, my French Christian friend Patrick asked my Beur friend Adel which T.V. program Adel’s family watched at night. Adel, whose father worked for a car factory like most Beur fathers, replied that they did not have a T.V. but they often had a typical Gaulois veillée, an old French custom in which the children spend the evening sitting around the father while he plays music and tells stories. After Adel left, Patrick told me with a mysterious look on his face that Adel’s family had veillées only because they did not have enough money to buy a T.V. I felt the same sadness as when I watched the young Beurs walking their old mothers before the mocking glances of their schoolmates. Adel’s family may or may not lack the money to buy a T.V., I thought to myself, but you, Patrick, definitely lack family spirit.

Even though most of the French did not show outward hostility toward me and my Jewish North African descent, I often faced what seemed like “double racism.” People were not sure whether I was a Beur or a Feuj, but they could tell I was North African. Once in the subway, an Arab­ looking young man smiled and handed me a leaflet, accompanied by a pat on the back and a “Long life to you, brother.” The leaflet denounced the “Zionist imperialists” and the “American Satan,” urging me to join an Iranian-backed group which fought those two evils.

The racism I faced, both as a Jew and as a North African, was often very subtle. It was sometimes an almost imperceptible change in peo­ple’s behavior once they found out I was Jewish. It was a feeling that they already had hung negative qualities on my back and that I had to behave irreproachably lest I confirm their opinion and help consolidate the negative generalizations they made about my people. And sometimes the racism was not subtle at all. An old woman screamed at me in a post office in the Latin Quarter,”Dirty Arab! Dirty Arab! Go back where you come from, dirty Beur!” A surprising anti-Semitic statement came from Herve, a supposed friend of mine. One day, as we sat at an outdoor cafe in the Latin Quarter, Herve calmly told me and a friend, “You know, I hate Jews but I like you guys. You are young. You are not like your parents. Your parents are the real bad Jews, hiding money and all that stuff.”

The atmosphere in Paris grew worse with the outbreak of the war in Lebanon. I was then attending a Jewish high school and felt that I was growing up in a Jewish cocoon. I never really had a chance to form my own opinions on this war. Deep down, I knew I was opposed to the Is­raeli army going past its initial goal and getting stuck in a Vietnam-like quagmire. When I saw images on T.V. of the massacres in the Palestini­an refugee camps of Sabra and Shatilla, I cried, not only because I saw dead human beings but because those human beings resembled the Beurs to whom I felt so close.

However, the reaction of the French politicians and media made me feel that, as a Jew, I should not allow myself to voice harsh criticism of Israel, that I ought to defend the Jewish state almost blindly since the attacks on it were so biased and unfair. The French press seemed to regard the war in Lebanon as an opportunity to justify their irrational feelings of hatred for Israeli Jews. The fact that Jews were the killers was more important than the fact that people were being killed at all. I had the dis­tinct feeling that many French saw the war as an opportunity to dispose of the old guilt they had carried since their collaboration with the Nazis in World War II. Every day the newspapers used such words as “geno­cide,” “holocaust,” and “fascist forces” and compared the Israeli actions to those of the Nazis in Europe. The main governmental television chan­nel used images from Jordanian television to cover the war and did not even bother to change the commentaries.

I realize now that inside me there was a voice telling me that to sup­port Israel blindly was to play the game of Israel’s attackers, but back then I was overwhelmed by feelings of outrage. I was not strong enough to fight the part of me which said that I should defend myself against those people by using their own methods. The French newspapers and television seemed to play down the fact that many Jews in Israel were opposed to the war in Lebanon. If I were not a Jew, I too might have hated Israel, for at that time Israel was depicted in France as the epitome of all evil. Only the Jews tried to defend Israel. In those dark days of the Lebanon War, I often perceived that the Jews in France were held responsible for Israel’s actions in Lebanon. I often had to face aggressive ques­tions and accusations on the politics of Israel, as if I had some say in Israeli decision-making. All this was only creating a vicious circle. Since French Jews felt as I did, they too blindly defended Israel. This added to the French perception that the Jews were united behind aggressive Israeli policies, thereby fueling overt anti-Semitism and pushing a tiny segment of the population to go as far as drawing swastikas and “Death to the Jews and to Israel” signs on the walls of the subway, thus making Jews even more suspicious and defensive.

I finished high school during the war in Lebanon. All through my high school years I had gone from my North African Jewish home to a Jewish school where most of the students were also North African. As high school ended, I realized that I did not want to leave my cocoon for a   French university. I desperately wanted to live and study in a place where I could be myself and not be in permanent conflict with the majority of those around me. I had visited Israel briefly and read a lot about it, so I natur­ally thought that there, in the Jewish state, I would find the solution to my problems of identity.

Little did I know that in Israel, too, I would feel like an outsider. I was especially surprised that anyone would call me “Frenchie,” and yet Is­raelis often did. After a few months in Israel I genuinely started to feel more like a Frenchman than I ever had while living in France. People kept reminding me that I was French, but I also began to realize how profoundly I had been marked by French culture despite feeling alien to it. I was versed in French literature and history, told French jokes about Belgians, wore French clothes, and was accustomed to French music. I spoke French at home, at my Jewish school, and on the way to and from synagogue. I was used to being Jewish in French.

Once again, I felt foreign to the society in which I lived, and most of the population considered me foreign as well. This time I was not a Jew­ish Moroccan but a French Moroccan and, interestingly enough, I felt and acted less and less Jewish in Israel. While in France I had been quite observant I stopped practicing Judaism entirely in Israel. I remember think­ing at the time that in Israel I could assimilate into a Jewish culture, while in France abandoning Judaism meant losing my whole Jewish identity. Israelis thought of me as a French Moroccan. I felt more and more French and grew increasingly aware of my Moroccan identity. For one thing, I felt the North African blood in my veins in my relations with Pales­tinians. I had never really thought much about how I would feel meeting them before I went to Israel. Most Palestinians one hears about in France are either refugees or terrorists, and I had unconsciously formed an im­age of Palestinians before I arrived. But as I met them at Hebrew Univer­sity, where I was studying, or in the Old City, where I loved to loiter, I felt the same feelings for them as I had for the North African Muslims in France, with whose culture and customs I had often identified. Of course, I often felt the Palestinian resentment toward the Jews in Israel, but when friendship with Palestinians was not made impossible by the Arab-Israeli conflict, I did feel that I had much in common with them.

Once, an Arab friend of mine named Majid invited me to his sister’s wedding. It was held in Majid’s house in ‘Issawiyya, the Arab village bordering Mount Scopus. As I entered the house on the day of the wed­ ding, I recognized the atmosphere of Jewish North African weddings and Bar Mitzvahs. Not only was the Oriental music familiar, but some of the other customs, such as the traditional “Leil al-Hanna” ceremony, in which a family elder rubs red henna on the hands of the bride and groom for happiness, are also observed in North African Jewish homes. At the wedding of Majid’s sister, I had the same feeling as at North African Jewish parties in France. The whole family was there, united like the five fingers of a hand, to share the happiness of the bride and groom. They were prepared to dance for days, as if they had no bones.

In my relations with Jewish Israelis, being Moroccan was sometimes an advantage and sometimes a burden. To my surprise, I learned that in Israel Moroccans are reputed to be violent and uneducated. They often suffer discrimination from Ashkenazim. I heard terrible reports about the discrimination against the majority of Sephardic Jews who immigrated to Israel in the early 1950s. I learned about the ma’abarot, the camps where the Ashkenazi government officials placed them, which were supposed to be temporary but which served as home to the average Sephardi for many years. The conditions in the ma’abarot were atrocious. The Ashkena­zi immigrants, who were segregated in the ma’abarot from the Sephardim, generally received better jobs in better neighborhoods, leaving the camps in a matter of months. I read heartbreaking testimonies from Iraqi Jews who in Iraq had been educated in the best schools and were versed in French, English, and Arabic literature. Some had waited all their lives for the historic moment in which they would come to the Holy Land. They were prepared to abandon all the wealth and habits of living they had developed over twenty-five centuries of exile by the rivers of Baby­lon. But they were not prepared to be treated as though theirs was an inferior culture, as though they needed to be taught “true” and “right” European customs for their own good, as well as for the sake of Israel, whose government greatly feared the “Levantinization” of the Jewish state. How could Sephardic Jews have readied themselves for that first experience upon arrival in the Holy Land, that of being sprayed with DDT — for “disinfection” — by Israeli immigration officials?

Since that appalling treatment of the early 1950s, there has been discrimination in employment, housing, and education. Not surprisingly, many protest groups and organizations have evolved to deal with the problem, which is slowly but surely being recognized and fought. The rate of “intermarriage” between Sepharadi and Ashkenazi Jews is steadily increasing while the inherent value of Oriental Jewish culture is being reclaimed. The day when the social and economic gap between the two groups is closed is just over the horizon.

I still perceived the alienation felt by some Moroccans, whether in the form of their angry recollections of the early years of discrimination in Israel, or the solidarity they sometimes displayed. Although my complexion is dark enough for French people to recognize me as North African, it is light enough for many Israelis to mistake me for an Ashkenazi, espe­cially in combination with my intellectual-looking glasses. In an Israeli electronics store where I once brought my radio to be fixed, the dark Moroccan owner was polite but cold. When I filled out a form and he saw that my name was Afilalo, a typical Moroccan name, his face lit up and he gave me a warm smile. We played “Jewish geography” and learned that he knew my Uncle Asher, who had been a general in the Jewish army.

I also perceived the mixed feelings that some Ashkenazim have towards Moroccans. I was deeply hurt to realize that they feel Moroccans and other Sephardic Jews to be somehow less Jewish than themselves, and that the only way to correct this fault is for the Sephardim to forsake their cus­toms for the benefit of the “norm,” that is to say standard Israeli Ash­kenazic culture.

After living in Israel for three years; I fell in love with an American woman and decided to come back with her to the United States. After only a few weeks outside Israel I realized that I was thinking of it nostalgically, that it had become my new “old country.” I had picked up many Is­raeli habits and had been influenced by the Israeli way of life. I missed going to the corner grocery store and shouting at the owner, “Moshe, give me a box of Shamenet and put it on my account!” I desperately want­ed a cup of coffee from Jerusalem’s Old City, no matter how good the brew in Cambridge’s “Coffee Connection.”

As I sit here in America and reflect on my childhood, I understand that nowhere can I find a country in which I will feel completely at home. I am part of the first generation of North African Jews to be born and grow up outside of their homeland. Since most of the Jews left North Africa, that culture is dying. Looking back at my experiences in France and in Israel, the two countries where most North African Jews now live, I realize that this culture is dissolving into French and Israeli culture, as it is bound to dissolve in all other places where smaller communities of such Jews settle. Each generation will forget more and more of our cus­toms. I never lived in Morocco. My parents speak Judeo-Arabic much better than I do. Whatever amount of Jewish North African culture I can absorb from them is less than what they learned, growing up in Morocco. Having lived in Israel and in France, I feel and act partly French and partly Israeli. Still, many Moroccan customs and ways of life, such as the Jewish North African conception of the family, are still part of me. But how many of these customs will I be able to transmit to my children, and how many will they be able to transmit to theirs? It is unlikely that my great-grandchildren will know that the family is supposed to be as unit­ed as the five fingers of the hand or that, once upon a time, these five fingers were the North African way of scaring away the evil eye.

The home I had been desperately looking for exists nowhere else but in my heart, and in the heart of other North African Jews. It exists in the special place in my soul where I keep the stories of my great-great­ grandfather riding a lion to the caves where he studied with the Prophet Elijah, of my grandfather rationing wine to stop the battering of wives by their husbands, and of my parents’ wedding where all of Marrakesh partied for days. So now I have stopped looking for the place where I will not feel foreign. I carry my home inside of me. I can be at home anywhere.


The author would like to thank Natasha Sabath for her help in editing this article.